Tra salute e sicurezza. Considerazioni in tema di intervento psichiatrico nelle istituzioni penitenziarie - In June 2008, health provision in Italian prisons was devolved from Prison Administration to the National Health Service. This reform now engages the above-mentioned agencies to redefine approaches and practices involving health and security. Psychiatric care in a forensic context is a critical issue, since it encompasses custody and care, penalty and rehabilitation. A number of settings are affected by the current reform: prisons, forensic psychiatric hospitals and juvenile correctional facilities. The author examines the historical and legal roots of the reform and then explores the feasible processes of inclusion of forensic psychiatric care in community mental health practices. He also discusses the specific measures and possible obstacles related to the reform of forensic psychiatric hospitals presented in the Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers (April 4th 2008). The author believes that, over the next three years, in the national and regional mental health programs, priority should be given to this issue. Keywords: health legislation, forensic psychiatric hospital, prisons, care.