Racism and Anti-Semitism: Similarities and Differences - Racism and anti-Semitism are outlined by a long-lived historiographical tradition. However, while both could be found during the Fascist and Nazi era, anti-Semitism is not a concept that can be found in any liberal country of the 19th and 20th centuries. Such controversial historiographical date makes it necessary to mark a distinction between these ideologies. Both racism and anti-semitism provide for the hierarchisation and differentiation of the people. However, racism should be considered as a preservative ideology in a positive relation with modernity. In fact, racism deals with the defence of a civilisation from the outside. Contrarily, anti-Semitism should be considered as the ideology of dissatisfaction as it has a controversial, hostile relation with liberal modernity in the belief that modernity should be destroyed as a representation of Verjudung. Hence the destructive, subversive character of anti-Semitism, also outlined by the need of finding fulfilment in a totalitarian historical context.