Un indice di deprivazione a livello aggregato da utilizzare su scala nazionale: giustificazioni e composizione - Measuring the relative socio-economic disadvantages has been representing a useful tool to study the relationship between socioeconomic factors and health conditions for at least 25 years. In the last years the possibility to develop epidemiological studies in large populations increased thanks to the availability of databases containing health information and databases containing information on socio-economic status (SES). In epidemiological literature we often find multidimensional measures of SES: deprivation indexes. They usually refer to geographical aggregations and are used as proxy of personal conditions; indexes allow to identify and estimate the existing relationship with different health outcomes. Keywords: indexes, socioeconomic status, deprivation, small areas, national census, epidemiology. Parole chiave: indici, stato socioeconomico, deprivazione, piccole aree, censimento, epidemiologia.