The essay analyzes the "joint-employership" in the contract of employment. The analysis underlines the international discipline on this subject and the compatibility of the "joint-employership" with article 2094 of the Italian civil code, which defines the contract of employment. Then, the essay examines whether the "joint-employership" is possible when, through contractual integration (agency work, contracting out, franchising etc.), autonomous companies are strictly integrated from an organizational point of view. The essay assumes that in some of these cases the "joint-employership" can be defined either according to the civil law principles on interconnected contracts ("contratti collegati") or to the fundamental characteristics of the contract of employment. Using these concepts, it is possible to define as "joint-employers" not only those who directly organize or control the workers, but also the entrepreneurs who benefit from the work through the commercial contract without having direct labour relationships with the employees.
Keywords: Contract of employment, "joint-employership", contractual integration, relational contracts, agency work, contracting out, franchising