The object of study of this essay is the distribution of social resources and the characteristics of personal networks that connect them, based on a probabilistic sample of the population residing in Italy (N = 1.226 cases). In the theoretical part of the study, the relations among concepts of social resource, personal network and social capital are taken into consideration. Using a mainstream approach, the following research hypotheses are discussed: (i) there is an increase in personal contacts useful for obtaining resources, in particular of family-related nature, among Italian residents in the South and on the Islands. (ii) The social capital of the Italian residents in the South and on the Islands is more bonding than that of residents in the North and Center of the Country. (iii) The social capital negatively influences generalized interpersonal trust in all areas of the Country. The results of the empirical research lead to accept the second hypothesis and to reject the first and the third.