The Fatah movement, the backbone of Palestinian national movement, faces a period of deep transformation. In the aftermath of Arafat’s death and with the decline of peace process, the movement has known a period of internal debate since 2005, in order to reshape the political space influenced by the emergence of Islamist challenge. This reform process follows two main directions: the internal reorganization and the political program. These topics constitute the base for the convening of the movement’s Sixth Conference, that could be read as the key factor for the transformation of Palestinian political system within an uncertain institutional framework, that of Palestinian National Authority. This work analyzes under which conditions Fatah movement is driving its transformation towards the institu- tionalization from a typical national liberation movement to a political party. Considering that the national aims have not been achieved yet, the Palestinian political landscape is shifting from a situation of one ruling party to a pluralistic de-facto situation, undoubtedly not the rule in the Arab world.
Keywords: Al-Fatah, Palestine, National Liberation Movements, Institutionalisation, Ethnonationalist Conflicts, Peace Processes