Aim of this work is to explore some of the main aspects concerning to the depression; specifically here we refer to depression as an heterogeneous construct partially overlapping with the nosographic descriptions reported in the common handbooks as DSM-IV or ICD-10. In accordance to this perspective, the paper will focus on two major points: the first refers to the functional and clinical thresholds between depression and common sadness. The second relies on the ways the depression is consider a functioning of the personality organized around psychological processes. In addition the manuscript investigates the emblematic psychopathological shape that depression assumes when put in relation to the maniacal counterpart as in the bipolar disease. Therapeutic intervention of depression is discussed; authors highlights systemic and intersubjectivity treatments based on the circular complexity of all the variables involved and on the non linear processing of the therapeutic relationship. Further the paper offers a pharmacological approach and an exhaustive list of the main drugs and their efficacy.
Keywords: Sadness, depression, system state, intersubjectivity, affective regulation, sense of self, separation and loss, mourning, aggressiviness against the object, tuning breakdown and atonement