The history of the dissident psychoanalytic movement, animated mostly by analysts of the "Zurich Psychoanalytic Seminar" and of the Italian group of Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, which culminated in the organization of the "counter-congress" of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) of Rome in 1969 in order to criticize the training system and training analysis of organized psychoanalysis, is briefly reviewed. The problems that were raised then still persist today, after more that 40 years, as it is shown also by Otto F. Kernberg’s presentation (see pp. 460-470 of this issue no. 4/2011 of Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane). The members of the Zurich Psychoanalytic Seminar decided, as a theoretical and political choice, not to become members of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Association, but to remain "psychoanalytic candidates" forever (Analytiker in Ausbildung). Finally, the reasons behind the culture of submission to authority that is so widespread among candidates of psychoanalytic institutes are discussed.
Keywords: Training analysis, psychoanalytic training, submission to authority, Zurich Psychoanalytic Seminar, graduation in psychoanalysis