Click here to download

Pain to overcome the pain: Experimental study of dissociative process related to the brooding, the emotional dysregulation and self-harm
Journal Title: QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA 
Author/s: Alessandra Brugnoni, Mara Fantinati 
Year:  2013 Issue: 32 Language: Italian 
Pages:  17 Pg. 61-77 FullText PDF:  680 KB
DOI:  10.3280/QPC2013-032005
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The aim of the study was to investigate the dissociative process in a clinical sample of 78 patients suffering from cluster B personality disorders with or without substance abuse. The literature has defined the self-harm both as strategy of emotional avoidance (Chapman, Gratz, Brown, 2006) both as action termination of a dissociative state consequent to a state of analgesia (Matsumoto, Imamura, Chiba, 2008). Today the term dissociation can be referred to at the same time a defense mechanism, an altered state of consciousness, or the failure to capture or loss of integration between systems or mental modules (Van der Hart, Nijenhuis, Steele, 2006). Therefore it was decided to analyze the dissociative process related to the brooding, the emozional dysregulation and self-harm. The correlational statistical analysis and multiple linear regression data revealed significant and useful results for therapeutic intervention.
Keywords: Dissociation, self-harm, cluster B Personality Disorders

  1. Matsumoto T., Imamura F., Chiba Y., Katsumata Y., Kitani M., Takeshima T. (2008). Analgesia during self-cutting: Clinical implications and the association with suicidal ideation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(3): 355-358., 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01805.DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01805.
  2. Meyer T.J. et al. (1996). “Penn State Worry Questionnaire” (PSWQ). In S. Van Rijsoort, P. Emmelkamp, G. Vervaeke (1999). Assessment. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire and the Worry Domains Questionnaire: structure, reliability and validity. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 6(4): 297-307.
  3. Orbach I., Gilboa-Schechtman E., Sheffer A., Meged S., Har-Even D., Stein D. (2006). Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Apr., 36(2): 136–153.
  4. Poustovoyt M. et al. (2000). Epidemiology of the dissociative disorders in the conventionally healthy person population. Acta Psychiatrica, Psychoterapeutica et Ethologica Tavica, 5: 2-13.
  5. Rhudy J.L., Meagher M.W. (2000). Fear and anxiety: divergent effects on human pain thresholds. Pain, 84: 65-75.
  6. Ross C.A. (1991). Epidemiology of multiple personality disorder and dissociation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14: 503-517.
  7. Sachsse U., Von Der Heyde S., Huether G. (2002). Stress Regulation and Self-Mutilation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(4): 672.
  8. Sansone R.A., Wiederman M.W., Sansone L.A. (1998). “The Self-Harm Inventory” (SHI) “Development of a scale for identifying self-destructive behaviors”. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(7): 973-983.
  9. Sansone R.A., Songer D.A., Sellbom M. (2006). The relationship between suicide attempts and low lethal self-harm behavior among psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 12(3): 148-152.
  10. Sar V. et al. (1999). Frequency of dissociative disorders in the general population: an epidemiological
  11. study in Turkey. Compr. Psychiatry, 40: 151-159.
  12. Sar V. et al. (2000). Frequency of dissociative disorders among psychiatric outpatients in Turkey. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41: 216-222.
  13. Steer R.A., Cavalieri T.A., Leonard D.M., Beck A.T. (1999). Use of the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care to screen for major depression disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 21 (2): 106-11.
  14. Steinberg M., Schnall M. (2006). La dissociazione, I cinque sintomi fondamentali. Milano: Raffello Cortina.
  15. Suchday S., Larkin K.T. (2001). Biobehavioral responses to interpersonal conflict during anger expression among anger-in and anger-out men. Ann Behav Med, 23: 282-290., 10.1207/S15324796ABM2304_DOI: 10.1207/S15324796ABM2304_
  16. Van der Hart O., Nijenhuis E.R.S., Steele K. (2006). Fantasmi nel sé. Trauma e trattamento della dissociazione strutturale. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  17. Westling S., Ahre’n B., Sunnqvist C. Träskman-Bendz L. (2009). Altered glucose tolerance in women with deliberate self-harm. Psychoneuroendocrinoliogy, 34: 878-883.
  18. Zoccola P.M., Dickerson S.S., Zaldivar F.P. (2008) . Rumination and Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Stressors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70: 661-667., 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817bbc7DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817bbc7
  19. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
  20. American Psychiatric Association (2000). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/SCID-II).
  21. Barrat E.S., Stanford M.S. (1995). “Barrat Impulsivness Scale” (BIS-11). In A. Fossati, A. Di Ceglie, E. Acquarini, E.S. Barratt (2001). “Psychometric properties of an Italian version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11” (BIS-11) in nonclinical subjects. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57: 815-828., 10.1002/jclp.1051DOI: 10.1002/jclp.1051
  22. Beck A.T., Rush A.L., Shaw B.F., Emery G. (1878). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In A.T. Beck (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.
  23. Bernstein E., Putnam F.W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 174 (12): 727-35., 10.1016/S0145-2134(08)80000DOI: 10.1016/S0145-2134(08)80000
  24. Briere J., Gil E. (1998). Self-Mutilation in Clinical and General Population Samples: prevalence, correlates and functions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68: 609-620., 10.1037/h008036DOI: 10.1037/h008036
  25. Carroll D., Davey Smith G., Sheffield D., Willemsen G.H.M., Sweetnam P.N., Gallagher J.E.J., Elwood P.C. (1996). “Blood pressure reactions to the cold pressor test and the prediction of future blood pressurestatus”. Data from the Caerphilly study. J Hum Hypertens, 10: 777-80., 10.1161/01.CIR.0000133415.37578.EDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000133415.37578.E
  26. Charles D., Spielberger C.D. (1999). “State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory” (STAXI 1 e 2 e STAXI AX/EX). In D.L. Scott et al., Acute topiramate differentially affects human aggressive responding at low vs. moderate doses in subjects with histories of substance abuse and antisocial behavior., 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.01.00DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.01.00
  27. Chapman A.L., Gratz K.L., Brown M.Z. (2006). Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: The experiential avoidance model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44: 371-394., 10.1016/j.brat.2005.03.00DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.03.00
  28. Bernstein Carlson E., Putnam F.W. (1996). “Dissociative Experiences Scale” (DES), edizione italiana curata da A. Fabbri Bombi, G. Colombo, F. Cristante, I. Bertin (1996). Un contributo alla standardizzazione della Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 219: 39-46., 10.1016/0272-7358(96)00006-DOI: 10.1016/0272-7358(96)00006-
  29. Forgays D.G., Forgays D.K., Spielberger C.D. (1997). Factor structure of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. J Pers Assess, 69: 497-507., 10.1207/s15327752jpa6903_DOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6903_
  30. Gratz K.L., Roemer L. (2004) , “Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale” (DERS), traduzione e adattamento italiano Sighinolfi C., Norcini Pala A., Chiri L.R., Marchetti I., Sica C. (2010)., 10.1002/jclp.2187DOI: 10.1002/jclp.2187
  31. Jacobs G.A., Latham L.E., Brown M.S. (1988). Test-retest reliability of the State-Trait Personality Inventory and the Anger Expression Scale. Anxiety Res, 1: 263-265., 10.1080/0891777880824872DOI: 10.1080/0891777880824872
  32. Kessler R.C. et al. (1994), Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: result from the national Comorbidity Survey. Archives of general Psychiatry, 51: 8-19., 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb0596DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb0596
  33. Klonsky E.D., Oltmanns T.F., Turkheimer E. (/2003). Deliberate Self-Harm: prevalence and psychological correlates. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160: 1501-1508., 10.16/j.eurpsy.2009.05.00DOI: 10.16/j.eurpsy.2009.05.00
  34. Kroenke K., Spitzer R.L., Williams J.B. (September 2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a Brief Depression Severity Measure. J Gen Intern Med, 16 (9): 606-13., 10.1111/j.15251497.2006.00409.DOI: 10.1111/j.15251497.2006.00409.
  35. Langbehn D.R., Pfohl B. (1993). Clinical correlates of self-mutilation among psychiatric inpatients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 5: 45-51., 10.1521/suli.2005.35.5.58DOI: 10.1521/suli.2005.35.5.58
  36. Liotti G. (2008). Trauma e dissociazione nella prospettiva dell’intersoggettività: il contributo della teoria dell’attaccamento, cap. 7 di Trauma e Psicopatologia. Un approccio evolutivo-relazionale. Roma: Astrolabio., 10.3280/MAL2009-00300DOI: 10.3280/MAL2009-00300

Alessandra Brugnoni, Mara Fantinati, Pain to overcome the pain: Experimental study of dissociative process related to the brooding, the emotional dysregulation and self-harm in "QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA" 32/2013, pp. 61-77, DOI:10.3280/QPC2013-032005

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content