The Italian system of public libraries revolves around national libraries. This system, internationally unique, consists of nine local libraries, two of which (Rome and Florence) have a special status. Based on a comparison between two national libraries at these two different levels (Florence and Naples), this article has two aims. First, it denounces the deficiencies and the state of crisis of Italian libraries; second, it emphasizes the need of an intelligent and smart integration between physical libraries and online libraries.
Keywords: Libraries, Electronic libraries, Archives Parole chiave: Biblioteche, Biblioteche elettroniche, archivi