2. individuare, comparare e sintetizzare le principali definizioni di engagement che stanno orientando il dibattito in quest’area, evidenziando eventuali carenze teoriche e suggerendo potenziali linee di sviluppo per la ricerca in quest’ambito. È stata condotta una revisione sistematica della letteratura dal 2002 al 2013 su tre database(PubMed/Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid PsycInfo; SCOPUS), utilizzando la seguente stringadi ricerca: "patient engagement" OR "consumer engagement" OR "client engagement" OR "citizen engagemen". Sono state condotte analisi bibliometriche sull’intero corpus di dati e analisi qualitative del contenuto su uno specifico sub campione di contributi che riportavano una specifica definizione di engagement. Su 1296 paper identificati in una prima fase di ricerca, solo 753 sono risultati pertinenti in quanto specificatamente focalizzati sul tema del "patient engagement". Di questi, solo 16 contributi presentavano una definizione esplicita di engagement qualificato come un concetto autonomo. Tuttavia, le definizioni attualmente presenti in letteratura si mostrano frammentarie e fortemente radicate nella prospettiva disciplinare degli autori proponenti. Inoltre, anche all’interno dei contributi che presentano una definizione esplicita di engagement, il framework teorico alla base risulta spesso parziale, meramente tassonomico, non contemplando la natura dinamica di tale fenomeno. Sulla base di questi risultati, il presente studio suggerisce di considerare il "patient engagement" come un concetto in evoluzione che necessita di una fondazione "ecologica" radicata nella prospettiva esperienziale dei pazienti e finalizzata a fornire insights sulle leve individuali, relazionali e organizzative alla base di questo processo.)" />
Click here to download

Engaging patients in health management: towards a preliminary theoretical conceptualization
Journal Title: PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 
Author/s: Serena Barello, Guendalina Graffigna, Mariarosaria Savarese 
Year:  2014 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  23 Pg. 11-33 FullText PDF:  166 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2014-003002
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Engaging patients in their own healthcare is now widely acknowledged as a critical ingredient for high-performance health systems as it may improve quality of care and reduce service delivery costs. However, despite the increasing debate about "patient engagement" (PE), this phenomenon remains conceptually and empirically under-developed, often used as a synonymous of other terms such as patient involvement or patient participation. In order to contribute to the conceptual foundation of PE, the aims of this study are twofold: 1. mapping the current trend of peer reviewed literature about engagement in health in terms of time frames, disciplinary perspectives, countries more active in the debate, terms mainly used to connote individuals in the care process; 2. detecting, comparing and synthesizing the main definitions that are currently orienting the literature debate, by casting light on theoretical gaps and suggesting potential lines for future research development. The keywords "patient engagement" OR "consumer engagement" OR "client engagement" OR "citizen engagement" were searched using databases more likely to cover the core research publication in health issues (PubMed/Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid PsycInfo; SCOPUS), within the peer-reviewed literature in the years 2000-2013. We conducted both bibliometric analysis and qualitative content analysis on a sub-sample constituted by the only studies that provided a definition of engagement. Out of 1286 papers initially retrieved, only 753 resulted pertinent because explicitly concerning "patient engagement". Furthermore, out of them only 16 contributes attempted to provide a definition of PE as an autonomous concept. However, these definitions are fragmented and various depending on the disciplinary landmarks to which authors belong. Furthermore, among the contributes that attempt a specific conceptualization of PE, the frameworks provided appear often partial, merely taxonomic and not able to cast light on the dynamic nature of engagement. Basing on these results, we suggest to look at engagement as an evolving concept that needs for a recover of an "ecological" foundation, mainly rooted in the deeper analysis of patients’ perspectives, and finalized to provide insights about this process drivers at the individuals, relational, and organizational levels.
Keywords: Patient engagement, health management, systematic review

  1. Abernethy A.P., Etheredge L.M., Ganz P.A., Wallace P., German R.R., Neti C. and Murphy S.B. (2010). Rapid-learning system for cancer care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28
  2. (27): 4268-4274., 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.5478AbrahamJ.,SickB.,AndersonJ.,BergA.,DehmerC.andTufanoA.(2011).Selectingaprovider:whatfactorsinfluencepatients’decisionmaking?JournalofHealthcareManagement,56(2):99DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.5478AbrahamJ.,SickB.,AndersonJ.,BergA.,DehmerC.andTufanoA.(2011).Selectingaprovider:whatfactorsinfluencepatients’decisionmaking?JournalofHealthcareManagement,56(2):99
  3. Adeyi O., Smith O. and Robles S. (2007). Public Policy and the Challenge of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org
  4. Barello S., Graffigna G. and Vegni E. (2012). Patient “engagement” as an emerging challenge for health-care services: Mapping the literature by bibliometric analysis. Nursing Research and Practice., 10.1155/2012/90593DOI: 10.1155/2012/90593
  5. Barello S., Graffigna G., Vegni E. and Bosio A.C. (2014). The challenges of conceptualizing patient engagement in healthcare: a lexicographic literature review. Journal of Participatory Medicine. 6, e9.
  6. Barnes T., Hancock K., and Dainton M. (2013). Training nurses to support greater patient engagement in haemodialysis. Journal of renal care, 39 (S2): 10-18., 10.1111/j.1755-6686.2013.12028.DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6686.2013.12028.
  7. Bensing J. (2000). Bridging the gap.: The separate worlds of evidence-based medicine and patient-centered medicine. Patient education and counseling, 39 (1): 17-25.
  8. Bellardita L., Graffigna G., Donegani S., Villani D., Villa S., Tresoldi V. and Valdagni R.
  9. (2012). Patient’s choice of observational strategy for early-stage prostate cancer.
  10. Neuropsychological Trends, 12: 107-116., 10.7358/neur-2012-012-belDOI: 10.7358/neur-2012-012-bel
  11. Berwick D.M., Nolan T.W. and Whittington J. (2008). The triple aim: care, health, and cost.
  12. Health Affairs, 27 (3): 759-769., 10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.75DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.75
  13. Bodenheimer T., Wagner E.H. and Grumbach K. (2002). Improving primary care for patients
  14. with chronic illness. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 288 (15): 1909-1914., 10.1001/jama.288.14.177DOI: 10.1001/jama.288.14.177
  15. Bosio C.A., Graffigna G. and Scaratti G. (2012). Knowing, learning and acting in healthcare organizations and services: Challenges and opportunities for qualitative research. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 7 (3): 256-274.
  16. Bower P., Richards D. and Lovell K. (2001). The clinical and cost effectiveness of self-help treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care: a systematic review.The British Journal of General Practice, 51 (471): 838-845.
  17. Bruni R.A., Laupacis A. and Martin D.K. (2008). Public engagement in setting priorities in healthcare. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179 (1): 15-18., 10.1503/cmaj.07165DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.07165
  18. Bruni R.A., Laupacis A. and Martin D.K. (2008). Public “engagement” in setting priorities in healthcare. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179 (1): 15-18.
  19. Bulger R.J. (1998). The quest for mercy. The forgotten ingredient in healthcare reform. Western Journal of Medicine, 168 (1): 54-72.
  20. Buntin M.B., Damberg C., Haviland A., Kapur K., Lurie N., McDevitt R. and Marquis M.S. (2006). Consumer-directed healthcare: early evidence about effects on cost and quality. Health Affairs, 25 (6): 516-530., 10.1377/hlthaff.25.w51DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.25.w51
  21. Cain D.J. (2002). Humanistic psychotherapies. Washington, DC: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Carman K.L., Dardess P., Maurer M., Sofaer S., Adams K., Bechtel C. and Sweeney J.
  22. (2013). Patient and family “engagement”: A framework for understanding the elements and developing interventions and policies. Health Affairs, 32 (2): 223-231., 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.113DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.113
  23. Carpini M.X.D., Cook F.L. and Jacobs L.R. (2004). Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annual Review of Political Science, 7 (1): 315-344., 10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.121003.09163DOI: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.121003.09163
  24. Church J., Saunders D., Wanke M., Pong R., Spooner C. and Dorgan M. (2002). Citizen par ticipation in health decision-making: past experience and future prospects. Journal of Public Health Policy, 1: 12-32., 10.2307/334311DOI: 10.2307/334311
  25. Cobden D.S., Niessen L.W., Barr C.E., Rutten F.F.H., and Redekop W.K. (2009). Relationships among self-management, patient perceptions of care, and health economic outcomes for decision-making and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. Value in Health, 13 (1): 138-147., 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00587.DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00587.
  26. Committee on Quality Healthcare in America, Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
  27. Coulter A. and Magee H. (2003). The European Patient of the Future. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
  28. Coulter A. and Ellins J. (2007). Effectiveness of strategies for informing, educating and involving patients. British Medical Journal, 7609 (335): 24-27., 10.1136/bmj.39246.581169.8DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39246.581169.8
  29. Coulter A. and Magee H. (2003). The European patient of the future. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
  30. Coulter A. (2011). Engaging patients in healthcare. New York: McGraw-Hill International. Coulter A., Parsons S. and Askham J. (2008). Where are the patients in decision-making about their own care? World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
  31. Davis R.E., Jacklin R., Sevdalis N. and Vincent C.A. (2007). Patient involvement in patient safety: what factors influence patient participation and engagement. Health Expectations, 10 (3): 259-67., 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2007.00450.DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2007.00450.
  32. Dearing R.L., Barrick C., Dermen K.H. and Walitzer K.S. (2005). Indicators of client engagement: influences on alcohol treatment satisfaction and outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19 (1): 71., 10.1037/0893-164X.19.1.7DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.19.1.7
  33. DiMatteo M.R., Haskard K.B., and Williams S.L. (2007). Health beliefs, disease severity, and patient adherence: A meta-analysis. Medical Care, 45 (6): 521-528, 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318032937DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318032937
  34. Donaldson L. (2003). Expert patients usher in a new era of opportunity for the NHS. British Medical Journal, 326 (7402): 1279-1280., 10.1136/bmj.326.7402.127DOI: 10.1136/bmj.326.7402.127
  35. Dunston R., Lee A., Boud D., Brodie P. and Chiarella M. (2009). Co-Production and Health System Reform–From Re-Imagining To Re-Making. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 68 (1): 39-52., 10.1111/j.1467-8500.2008.00608.DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8500.2008.00608.
  36. Eisenberg B. (1996). Customer service in healthcare: a new era. Hospital & health services administration, 42 (1): 17-31.
  37. Estabrooks C.A., Winther C., and Derksen L. (2004). Mapping the field: a bibliometric analysis of the research utilization literature in nursing. Nursing research, 53 (5): 293-303.
  38. European Commission. (2007). Health in the European Union. Brussels. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_publication/eb_health_en.pdf
  39. Forbat L., Cayless S., Knighting K., Cornwell J. and Kearney N. (2009). Engaging patients in healthcare: an empirical study of the role of “engagement” on attitudes and action. Patient education and counseling, 74 (1): 84-90., 10.1016/j.pec.2008.07.05DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2008.07.05
  40. Foster M.M., Earl P.E., Haines T.P. and Mitchell G.K. (2010). Unravelling the concept of
  41. consumer preference: implications for health policy and optimal planning in primary
  42. care. Health policy, 97 (2): 105-112., 10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.04.00DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.04.00
  43. Frosch D.L., May S.G., Rendle K.A., Tietbohl C. and Elwyn G. (2012). Authoritarian physicians
  44. and patients’ fear of being labeled ‘difficult’ among key obstacles to shared decision
  45. making. Health Affairs, 31 (5): 1030-1038., 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.057DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.057
  46. Gill P.S. (2013). Patient engagement: an investigation at a primary care clinic. International Journal of General Medicine, 6: 85-98., 10.2147/IJGM.S4222DOI: 10.2147/IJGM.S4222
  47. Golay A., Brock E., Gabriel R., Konrad T., Lalic N., Laville M. and Anderwald C.H. (2013). Taking small steps towards targets–perspectives for clinical practice in diabetes, cardiometabolic disorders and beyond. International journal of clinical practice, 67 (4): 322-332., 10.1111/ijcp.1211DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.1211
  48. Graffigna G., Barello S. and Riva G. (2013). Technologies for patient engagement. Health Affairs., 10.1377/hlthaff.2013.027DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2013.027
  49. Graffigna G., Barello S. and Riva G. (2013). How to make health information technology effective: the challenge of patient engagement. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 94 (10): 2034-2035., 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.04.02DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.04.02
  50. Graffigna G., Barello S., Wiederhold B.K., Bosio A.C. and Riva G. (2013). Positive technology as a driver for health engagement. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 191: 9-17., 10.3233/978-1-61499-282-0-DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-282-0-
  51. Gruman J., Rovner M.H., French M.E., Jeffress D., Sofaer S., Shaller D. and Prager D.J. (2010). From patient education to patient engagement: Implications for the field of patient education. Patient education and counseling, 78 (3): 350-356., 10.1016/j.pec.2010.02.00DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.02.00
  52. Helderman J.K., Schut F.T., Van Der Grinten T.E. and Van De Ven W.P. (2005). Marketoriented healthcare reforms and policy learning in the Netherlands. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 30 (1-2): 189-210., 10.1215/03616878-30-1-2-18DOI: 10.1215/03616878-30-1-2-18
  53. Hibbard J.H. and Weeks E.C. (1987). Consumerism in healthcare: Prevalence and predictors. Medical Care, 1019-1032.
  54. Hibbard J.H. and Peters E. (2003). Supporting informed consumer healthcare decisions: data presentation approaches that facilitate the use of information in choice. Annual Review of Public Health, 24 (1): 413-433., 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.24.100901.14100DOI: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.24.100901.14100
  55. Hibbard J.H. (2009). Using systematic measurement to target consumer activation strategies. Medical Care Research and Review, 66 (1 suppl): 9S-27S., 10.1177/107755870832696DOI: 10.1177/107755870832696
  56. Hibbard J.H. and Greene J. (2013). What the evidence shows about patient activation: better health outcomes and care experiences; fewer data on costs. Health Affairs, 32 (2): 207-214., 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.106DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.106
  57. Hurley R.E., Keenan P.S., Martsolf G.R., Maeng D.D. and Scanlon D.P. (2009). Early experiences with consumer engagement initiatives to improve chronic care. Health Affairs, 28 (1): 277-283., 10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.27DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.27
  58. Kerridge I.H., Lowe M., Stewart C. (2013). Ethics and law for the health professions (Fourth edition). Annandale: NSW The Federation Press.
  59. Koh H.K., Brach C., Harris L.M. and Parchman M.L. (2013). A Proposed ‘Health Literate Care Model’ would constitute a systems approach to Improving patients’ engagement in care. Health Affairs, 32 (2): 357-367., 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.120DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.120
  60. Kwan B.M., Dimidjian S. and Rizvi S.L. (2010). Treatment preference, engagement, and clinical improvement in pharmacotherapy versus psychotherapy for depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48 (8): 799-804., 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.00DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.00
  61. Leape L., Berwick D., Clancy C., Conway J., Gluck P., Guest J. and Isaac T. (2009). Transforming healthcare: a safety imperative. Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 18 (6): 424-428., 10.1136/qshc.2009.03695DOI: 10.1136/qshc.2009.03695
  62. Lee P.V. and Hoo E. (2006). Beyond consumer-driven healthcare: purchasers’ expectations of all plans. Health Affairs, 25 (6): w544-w548., 10.1377/hlthaff.25.w54DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.25.w54
  63. Légaré F. and Witteman H.O. (2013). Shared decision making: examining key elements and barriers to adoption into routine clinical practice. Health Affairs, 32 (2): 276-284., 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.107DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.107
  64. Libreri C. and Graffigna G. (2012) Mapping online peer exchanges on diabetes. Neuropsychological Trends 12 (1): 125-134, 10.7358/neur-2012-012-librLongtinY.,SaxH.,LeapeL.L.,SheridanS.E.,DonaldsonL.andPittetD.(2010).Patientparticipation:currentknowledgeandapplicabilitytopatientsafety.MayoClinicProceedings,85(1):53-62.DOI:10.4065/mcp.2009.024DOI: 10.7358/neur-2012-012-librLongtinY.,SaxH.,LeapeL.L.,SheridanS.E.,DonaldsonL.andPittetD.(2010).Patientparticipation:currentknowledgeandapplicabilitytopatientsafety.MayoClinicProceedings,85(1):53-62.DOI:10.4065/mcp.2009.024
  65. Luxford K. (2013). Promoting patient based care and consumer engagement. Cancer Forum, 37 (1): 17-20.
  66. Mahmud S. (2004). Citizen participation in the health sector in rural Bangladesh: perceptions and reality. IDS Bulletin, 35 (2): 11-18., 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2004.tb00116.DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2004.tb00116.
  67. Mandzuk: L.L. and McMillan D.E. (2005). A concept analysis of quality of life. Journal of orthopedic nursing, 9 (1): 12-18., 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18010032.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18010032.
  68. McBride T. and Korczak V. (2007). Community consultation and engagement in healthcare reform. Australian Health Review, 31 (5): 13-15., 10.1071/AH070S1DOI: 10.1071/AH070S1
  69. Mezzich J., Snaedal J., van Weel C. and Heath I. (2010). Toward person-centered medicine: From disease to patient to person. The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, 77 (3): 304-306., 10.1002/msj.2018DOI: 10.1002/msj.2018
  70. Mittler J.N., Martsolf G.R., Telenko S.J. and Scanlon D.P. (2013). Making sense of consumer engagement initiatives to improve health and healthcare: a conceptual framework to guide policy and practice. Milbank Quarterly, 91 (1): 37-77., 10.1111/milq.1200DOI: 10.1111/milq.1200
  71. Montgomery P., Bjornstad G. and Dennis J. (2006). Media-based behavioural treatments for behavioural problems in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1., 10.1002/14651858.CD00220DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD00220
  72. Morrison A. (2001). Effectiveness of printed patient educational materials in chronic illness:
  73. a systematic review of controlled trials. Journal of Managed Pharmaceutical Care, 1 (1): 51-62., 10.1300/J234v01n01_0DOI: 10.1300/J234v01n01_0
  74. Mulley A.G., Trimble C. and Elwyn G. (2012). Stop the silent misdiagnosis: patients’ preferences
  75. matter. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 345: e6572-e6578., 10.1136/bmj.e657DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e657
  76. Patel N. and Rajasingam D. (2013). User engagement in the delivery and design of maternity services. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology., 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.04.00DOI: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.04.00
  77. Pelletier L.R. and Stichler J.F. (2013). Action brief: patient engagement and activation: a health reform imperative and improvement opportunity for nursing. Nursing Outlook, 61 (1): 51-4., 10.1016/j.outlook.2012.11.00DOI: 10.1016/j.outlook.2012.11.00
  78. Pelzang R. (2010). Time to learn: understanding patient-centred care. British journal of nursing, 19 (14): 912.
  79. Quam L., Smith R. and Yach D. (2006). Rising to the global challenge of the chronic disease epidemic. The Lancet, 368 (9543): 1221-1223., 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69422-DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69422-
  80. Robert G.B. (2007). Bringing user experience to healthcare improvement: The concepts,
  81. methods and practices of experience-based design. Oxon, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.
  82. Robinson J.H., Callister L.C., Berry J.A. and Dearing K.A. (2008). Patient centered care and adherence: Definitions and applications to improve outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20 (12): 600-607., 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2008.00360.DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2008.00360.
  83. Rodriguez K.M. (2013). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Patient engagement in Diabetes
  84. Self-Management: Perspectives of a Certified Diabetes Educator. Clinical therapeutics,
  85. 35 (2): 170-178., 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.01.00DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.01.00
  86. Ryan R., Santesso N., Hill S., Lowe D., Kaufman C. and Grimshaw J. (2011). Consumeroriented
  87. interventions for evidence-based prescribing and medicines use: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 5 (5): 160-172., 10.1002/14651858DOI: 10.1002/14651858
  88. CD007768.pub2 Sanders M.R. and Kirby J.N. (2012). Consumer engagement and the development, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs. Behavior therapy, 43 (2): 236-250., 10.1016/j.beth.2011.01.00DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.01.00
  89. Sarasohn-Kahn J. (2013). A role for patients: the argument for self-care. American journal of preventive medicine, 44 (1): S16-S18., 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.01DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.01
  90. Schley C., Yuen K., Fletcher K. and Radovini A. (2012). Does engagement with an intensive outreach service predict better treatment outcomes in ‘high-risk’ youth? Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 6 (2): 176-184., 10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00338.DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00338.
  91. Seligman M.E. and Csikszentmihalyi M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American psychologist, 55 (1): 5., 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.
  92. Shine K.I. (2002). Healthcare quality and how to achieve it. Academic Medicine, 77 (1): 91-99.
  93. Simpson D.D. (2004). A conceptual framework for drug treatment process and outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27 (2): 99-121., 10.1016/j.jsat.2004.06.00DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2004.06.00
  94. Staudt M., Lodato G. and Hickman C.R. (2012). Therapists talk about the “engagement” process. Community mental health journal, 48 (2): 212-218.
  95. Stewart M. (2003). Patient-centered medicine: transforming the clinical method. Oxon, UK: Radcliffe Pub.
  96. Varkey P., Reller M.K. and Resar R.K. (2007). Basics of quality improvement in healthcare. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82 (6): 735-739., 10.4065/82.6.73DOI: 10.4065/82.6.73
  97. Wagner E.H. (2001). Meeting the needs of chronically ill people. British Medicine Journal, 323 (7319): 945-946., 10.1136/bmj.323.7319.94DOI: 10.1136/bmj.323.7319.94
  98. World Health Organization (1981). Global strategy for health for all by the year 2000. Geneva: WHO.
  99. World Health Organization (2008). 2008-2013 action plan for the global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Geneva: WHO.
  100. World Health Organization (2009). WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in healthcare: first global patient safety challenge. Clean care is safer care. Geneva: WHO.
  101. World Health Organization (2011). World health statistics 2011. Geneva: WHO

Serena Barello, Guendalina Graffigna, Mariarosaria Savarese, in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2014, pp. 11-33, DOI:10.3280/PDS2014-003002

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content