In this paper the Author maintains that in Rousseau’s philosophy evil is peculiar to human nature and not a mere historical, environmental and social product. For this reason, even being educated by the best of teachers is no perpetual safeguard against evil. Émile can reduce its impact on his life, confining it - in a certain sense - to the periphery of the world. He can also protect himself against any contamination existing in the world, which in effect is inhabited by men characterized by their faiblesse and their inclination to misuse liberty. But he has no other possibility. The author maintains, therefore, that the thesis according to which in Rousseau’s philosophy evil results from "society" is limited because it takes little into account the significance of anthropology in Émile and, particularly, in Profession de foi du vicaire savoyard.
Keywords: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, evil, human nature, society, education, citizen