The conference of Caracas in 1954 represents a key event in the definition of Inter-American relations in the Cold War context. Through the anti-Communist resolution passed at the meeting, Washington confirmed its intention to shield the American continent from the penetration of international communism. In doing so, the White House disappointed once again Latin America’s expectations to give priority to economic and social issues. The article covers the key stages of the conference and investigates the perspective of Italian ambassadors accredited in American republics at that time through the reports that they sent to the government of Rome before, during and after the Venezuelan works. Based upon these unpublished sources, preserved at the Historical and Diplomatic Archives of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the essay suggests a reappraisal of inter-American relations taking into consideration both Italy’s views and the context of bilateral confrontation.
Keywords: Inter American Conferences, Cold War, Italian diplomacy, Venezuela, Eisenhower’s administration, anti-Communist resolution