This paper analyses the historiogaphical debate on communism in Italy and France. The chronological framework is set from the 70’s to actuality. The fall of real socialism marked the two different phases in which the historiography of communism is still divided. First phase focus is about National tradition of communism. Second one focus is basically on the idea of communism as a transnational phenomenon. Moreover this essay analyses the differences between Italian and French historical approach on communism as they are originated by their own National historiographical tradition..
Keywords: Storia del comunismo, storia della storiografia, storia dei partiti politici, storia degli intellettuali, comunismo nazionale, comunismo internazionale.