Click here to download

Psychology and genocide. The development of a profession in Rwanda
Author/s: Adriano Zamperini, Marta Bettini 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  16 Pg. 71-86 FullText PDF:  83 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PU2015-001004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Between April and July 1994, Rwanda suffered a genocide distinguished by its intensity and severity of violence: about one million people were killed. Given the large numbers of Rwandans who experienced major traumatic events, not surprisingly in the aftermath of 1994 numerous epidemiological studies showed high rates of psychological and psychosocial problems in the population of Rwanda. Social programs and mental health services established for genocidetraumatized Rwandans emphasize the role of clinical psychology as a profession. This article reflects on the potentialities and challenges of implementing psychological interventions in the aftermath of a genocide, focusing on group therapy. More specifically, this article explores the position of clinical psychologists among Western ‘medicalization’ of mental disorders and traditional healing mechanisms.
Keywords: Genocide, collective trauma, professional career in psychology, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Rwanda

  1. Adekunle J.O. (2007). Culture and Customs of Rwanda. London: Greenwood Press.
  2. African Rights (1995). Rwanda. Death, Despair and Defiance. London: African Rights.
  3. Beneduce R. (2007). Etnopsichiatria. Sofferenza mentale e alterità fra Storia, dominio e cultura. Roma: Carocci.
  4. Bohleber W. (2010). Psychoanalytic Diagnosis. The Identity Crisis of Modern Psychoanalysis. London: Karnac (trad. it.: Identità, trauma e ideologia. La crisi d’identità della psicoanalisi moderna. Roma: Astrolabio, 2012).
  5. Bracken P.J., Giller J.E. & Summerfield D. (1995). Psychological responses to war and atrocity: The limitations of current concepts. Social Science & Medicine, 40, 8: 1073-1082., DOI: 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00181-R
  6. Cocks G. (1985). Psychotherapy in the Third Reich. The Göring Institute. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (trad. it.: Psicoterapia nel Terzo Reich. L’Istituto Göring. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1988). Corbella S. (2004). Le petit groupe: un dispositif approprié à l’élaboration de traumatismes. Revue de Psychothérapie Psychanalytique de Groupe, 42, 1: 51-67., DOI: 10.3917/rppg.042.0051
  7. De Jong J.P., Scholte W.F., Koeter M.W.J. & Hart A.A.M. (2000). The prevalence of mental health problems in Rwandan and Burundese refugee camps. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 3: 171-177., DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.102003171.x
  8. Douglas M. (2002). Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge (trad. it.: Purezza e pericolo. Un’analisi dei concetti di contaminazione e tabù. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2003).
  9. Dyregrov A., Gupta L., Gjestad R. & Mukanoheli E. (2000). Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 1: 3-21., DOI: 10.1023/A:1007759112499
  10. Ferrero F., Laubscher A. & Munyandamutsa N. (2006). Santé mentale: dix ans de collaboration avec le Rwanda. Revue Médicale Suisse, 2: 30-40.
  11. Fonseca L.M. & Testoni I. (2011). The emergence of thanatology and current practice in death education. Omega. Journal of Death and Dying, 64: 157-169., DOI: 10.2190/OM.64.2.d
  12. Gashumba B.E. (2004). Des représentations traditionnelles des maladies mentales au Rwanda. Butare (Rwanda): Université Nationale du Rwanda.
  13. Gishoma D. & Brackelaire J.-L. (2008). Quand le corps abrite l’inconcevable. Comment dire le bouleversement dont témoignent les corps au Rwanda? Cahiers de Psychologie Clinique, 30, 1: 159-183., DOI: 10.3917/cpc.030.0159
  14. Gishoma D., Brackelaire J.-L., Munyandamutsa N., Mujawayezu J., Mohand A.A. & Kayiteshonga Y. (2014). Supportive-expressive group therapy for people experiencing collective traumatic crisis during the genocide commemoration period in Rwanda: Impact and implications. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 2014, 2, 1: 469-488., DOI: 10.5964/jspp.v2i1.292
  15. Kaës R. (1989). Ruptures catastrophiques et travail de mémoire, notes pour une recherche. In: Puget et al., 1989 (trad. it.: Rotture catastrofiche e lavoro della memoria, pp. 159-191).
  16. Kagoyire R. (2007). Pratique du thérapeute moderne dans la réalité socioculturelle Rwandaise. Butare (Rwanda): Université Nationale du Rwanda.
  17. Kayiteshonga Y. (2006). “L’évolution du traumatisme psychique chez les rescapés, douze ans après le génocide des tutsi du Rwanda”. Mémoire de Diplôme d’Études Approfondies (DEA) inédit. Paris: Université de Paris VIII, Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR) de Psychologie, Pratiques Cliniques et Sociales.
  18. Lawson R.W. & Hagengimana A. (1998). PTSD in survivors of Rwanda’s 1994 war. Psychiatric Times, XV, 4: 1-4.
  19. Mucci C. (2008). Il dolore estremo. Il trauma da Freud alla Shoah. Roma: Borla.
  20. Mukamabano M. (2001). Rwanda: les étoiles éteintes. Autodafé (Réseau international des villes refuges), 2: 33-51.
  21. Munyandamutsa N. (2001). Question du sens et des repères dans le traumatisme psychique, réflexions atour de l’observation clinique d’enfants et d’adolescents du génocide rwandais de 1994. Genève: Éditions Médicine & Hygiène.
  22. Munyandamutsa N. & Mahoro Nkubamugisha P. (2009). Prévalence de l’état de stress posttraumatique dans la population rwandaise. Diversités de figures cliniques, abus de drogues et autres co-morbidités. Genève: Ministere de la Sante Programme National de Sante Mentale & Organisation Mondiale de Sante.
  23. Musabe-Ngamije J. (2002). Which program to be elaborated in order to teach character to
  24. Rwandan children after genocide. InFo, 5, 2: 15-34.
  25. Nisbet Wallis D.A. (2002). Reduction of trauma symptoms following group therapy. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 1: 67-74., DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.00980.x.PearlmanL.A.(2013).Restoringselfincommunity:Collectiveapproachestopsychologicaltraumaaftergenocide.JournalofSocialIssues,69,1:111-124.DOI:10.1111/josi.12006
  26. Pines M. (1985). Pshychic development and the group analytic situation. Group, 9, 1: 24-37., DOI: 10.1007/BF01456578
  27. Puget J. (1989). État de menace et psychanalyse. In: Puget et al., 1989 (trad. it.: Stato di minaccia e psicoanalisi. Dallo strano strutturante allo strano alienante, pp. 1-37).
  28. Puget J., Kaës R., Vignar M., Ricón L., Braun de Dunayevich J., Pelento M.L., Amati S., Ulriksen-Vignar M. & Galli V. (1989). Violence d’état et psychanalyse. Paris: Dunod (trad. it.: Violenza di stato e psicoanalisi. Napoli: Gnocchi, 1994).
  29. Rutembesa E. (2004). Le rôle des tradipraticiens face au syndrome de stress post-traumatique généré par le génocide rwandais (Thèse de doctorat). Paris: UFR de Psychologie, Pratiques Clinqiues et Sociales, Université de Paris VIII.
  30. Schaal S. & Elbert T. (2006). Ten years after the genocide: Trauma confrontation and posttraumatic stress in Rwandan adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 1: 95-105., DOI: 10.1002/jts.20104
  31. Schultz J.H. (1932). Das autogene Training (konzentrative Selbstentspannung). Versuch einer klinisch-praktischen Darstellung. Stuttgart: Thieme (trad. it.: Il training autogeno. I: Esercizi inferiori. II: Esercizi superiori. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1968).
  32. Sloan D.M., Bovin M.J. & Schnurr P.P. (2012). Review of group treatment for PTSD. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49, 5: 689-701., DOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2011.07.0123
  33. Sorenson D.S. (2003). Healing traumatizing provider interactions among women through shortterm group therapy. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 17, 6: 259-269., DOI: 10.1053/j.apnu.2003.10.002
  34. Staub E. (1989). The Roots of Evil. The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  35. Staub E. (1999). The roots of evil: Social conditions, culture, personality, and basic human needs. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 3: 179-192., DOI: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_2
  36. Staub E., Pearlman L.A., Gubin A. & Hagengimana A. (2005). Healing, reconciliation, forgiving, and the prevention of violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its
  37. experimental evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 3: 297-334., DOI: 10.1521/jscp.
  38. Summerfield D. (1999). A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 10: 1449-1462.
  39. 10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00450-X.
  40. Summerfield D. (2001). The intervention of post-traumatic stress disorder and the social usefulness of a psychiatric category. British Medical Journal, 322, 7278: 95-98., DOI: 10.1136/bmj.322.7278.95
  41. Testoni I., Lazzarotto Simioni J. & Di Lucia Sposito D. (2013). Representation of death and social management of the limit of life: Between resilience and irrationalism. Nutritional Therapy and Metabolism, 31 4: 192-198., DOI: 10.5301/NTM.2013.11585
  42. Watters C. (2001). Emerging paradigms in the mental health care of refugees. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 11: 1709-1718., DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00284-7
  43. Young A. (1995). The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  44. Zamperini A. (2013). Banalità dell’indifferenza. Ambivalenza di un sentimento (non sempre) al servizio del male. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLVII, 2: 349-368., DOI: 10.3280/PU2013-002014
  45. Zamperini A. & Menegatto M. (2013). La violenza collettiva e il G8 di Genova. Trauma psicopolitico e terapia sociale della testimonianza. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, XLVII, 3: 423-442., DOI: 10.3280/PU2013-003002

Adriano Zamperini, Marta Bettini, Psychology and genocide. The development of a profession in Rwanda in "PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE" 1/2015, pp. 71-86, DOI:10.3280/PU2015-001004


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content