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Il disturbo di comprensione del testo scritto: descrizione clinica e definizione diagnostica
Titolo Rivista: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Autori/Curatori: Maria Rosita Cecilia, Pierpaolo Vittorini, Ferdinando di Orio 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  35 P. 9-43 Dimensione file:  322 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2015-001001
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


La lettura e un processo complesso che include due abilita indipendenti, ma fortemente interconnesse, la decodifica e la comprensione. Tuttavia, il disturbo di comprensione, pur essendo ampiamente diffuso e gravido di conseguenze, e un ambito d’indagine relativamente recente. Questa rassegna esamina la letteratura esistente sul disturbo di comprensione del testo, analizzando le principali indicazioni diagnostiche nazionali e internazionali e sintetizzando i risultati degli studi che hanno esaminato i deficit cognitivi e metacognitivi associati, le possibili implicazioni educative, psicologiche e sociali e la sua evoluzione nel tempo. Dall’analisi della letteratura emerge la necessita di riconoscere la specificita del disturbo e l’esistenza di un profilo cognitivo e metacognitivo "tipico", caratterizzato da deficit nei processi inferenziali, nella memoria di lavoro, nell’attenzione e nella metacomprensione. Queste difficolta tendono a persistere nel tempo e influenzano negativamente il percorso accademico, sociale e lavorativo (Willcutt e Pennington, 2000; Shaywitz et al., 1999). In assenza di un adeguato trattamento il disturbo si cronicizza e permane nel tempo la sua specificita. Tuttavia, ancora oggi emergono difficolta nella diagnosi differenziale. Un adeguato iter valutativo risulta pertanto fondamentale, affinche si giunga ad una corretta identificazione. Una diagnosi precoce e un adeguato trattamento possono, infatti, migliorare sensibilmente la prognosi (Torgerson e Elbourne, 2002), riducendo il rischio di cronicizzazione, con conseguenze positive non solo sul bambino e sulla sua famiglia, ma anche sulla comunita, attraverso un contenimento dei costi destinati all’assistenza (Carretti et al., 2002). Parole chiave: cattivi lettori, disturbi specifici dell’apprendimento, comprensione del testo scritto.


Keywords: Poor comprehenders, specific learning disorders, reading comprehension.

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