Clicca qui per scaricare

Immigration Law as Labour Market Regulation: Temporary Migration Status and Migrant Work Relations
Titolo Rivista: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Autori/Curatori: Mimi Zou 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  22 P. 43-64 Dimensione file:  75 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2015-001003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


This paper examines the way in which immigration law function as a form of labour market regulation, which directly structure and shape the employment relations of migrants in advanced industrialised countries. In particular, Temporary Migrant Workers Programmes (Tmwps) have rapidly expanded in recent years and have been actively promoted by national and global policy makers as a desirable labour migration instrument for host states, home states, and migrants themselves. Through analysing the regulatory design and operation of a contemporary Tmwp - Australia's Subclass 457 Visa scheme - this paper seeks to develop a conceptual framework to elucidate the legal production of ‘precarious migration status’ and its role in shaping certain vulnerabilities in migrant work relations. These vulnerabilities are coined 'hyper-dependence’ and ‘hyper-precarity’. Hyper-dependence refers to a migrant worker’s extreme dependence on and subordination to her sponsor/employer for the legal authorisation to work and reside in the host state. It is concerned with a high degree of labour unfreedom inherent in the ‘tie-in’ structure of Tmwps, where there are de jure and de facto restrictions on migrant workers to change employers, occupations, sectors, and workplaces. The notion of hyper-precarity refers to the tenuous nature of these migrants' job security, employment and social protections that arise from their precarious statuses under Tmwps.

Questo articolo esamina il modo in cui il diritto dell’immigrazione funziona come forma di regolamentazione del mercato del lavoro, che struttura e forma direttamente i rapporti di lavoro dei migranti nei paesi industrializzati avanzati. In particolare, i Programmi per i lavoratori migranti temporanei (Tmwps), negli ultimi anni, sono stati velocemente ampliati e attivamente promossi dai politici nazionali e globali come strumento di acquisizione di lavoro desiderabile per gli Stati ospitanti, gli Stati di origine e gli immigrati stessi. Attraverso l’analisi del disegno normativo e il funzionamento di un Tmwp contemporaneo - lo schema Visa sottoclasse 457 in Australia - questo documento mira a sviluppare un quadro concettuale per chiarire la produzione legale del concetto di 'stato di migrazione precaria' e il suo ruolo nel plasmare alcune vulnerabilità nei rapporti di lavoro migranti. Queste vulnerabilità sono chiamate iper-dipendenza e iper-precarietà. Hyper-dipendenza si riferisce alla situazione di estrema dipendenza del lavoratore migrante e la subordinazione al suo sponsor/ datore di lavoro per l'autorizzazione legale a lavorare e a risiedere nello Stato ospitante. Si occupa di un alto grado di manodopera non libera insita nella struttura 'tie-in' di Tmwps, dove c’è de jure e de facto una restrizione per i lavoratori migranti nel cambiare datore di lavoro, professioni, settori e posti di lavoro. Il concetto di iper-precarietà si riferisce alla natura tenue di sicurezza del lavoro di questi migranti, l'occupazione e la protezione sociale che nascono dal loro status precario sotto Tmwps.
Keywords: Legge sull'immigrazione; programmi lavoratori migranti temporanei (Tmwp); Sottoclasse schema 457 Visa Australia, iper-dipendenza e iper-precarietà.

  1. Actu (2014). Submission: Review of the 457 Visa Program. Melbourne: Actu.
  2. Anderson B. (2014). Migration, immigration controls and the fashioning of precarious workers. Work, Employment and Society, 24: 300-317.
  3. Bertone S., Griffin G. and Iverson R.D. (1995). Immigrant Workers and Australian Trade Unions: Participation and Attitudes. International Migration Review, 29: 722-744.
  4. Birrell B. and Healy E. (2012). Immigration Overshoot. Centre for Population and Urban Research: Monash University.
  5. Bowen C. (2012a). Minister for Immigration and Citizenship. First ever termination of a labour agreement. Canberra, 15 February. http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/media/cb/2012/cb182584.htm
  6. Bowen C. (2012b). Minister for Immigration and Citizenship. Key Note Address: CPD Immigration Law Conference - Immigration Lawyers Association of Australasia; http://www.chrisbowen.net/media-centre/speeches.do? newsId= 56 40.
  7. Caspersz D. (2009). The Call to Arms: Organizing Temporary Migrant Workers in Australia. “International Industrial Relations Association World Congress”. Sydney, 24-27 August.
  8. Castles S. (2006). Back to the Future? Can Europe meet its Labour Needs through Temporary Migration?. In: International Migration Institute, ed. cit.
  9. Crock M., Howe S. and McCallum R. (2014). Conflicted Priorities? Enforcing Fairness for Temporary Migrant Workers in Australia. In: Freedland M. and Costello C., editors, cit.
  10. Deet (1995). Commission of Inquiry into the Temporary Entry of Business People and High Skilled Specialists Report: Business Temporary Entry: Future Directions. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education and Training.
  11. Dibp (2014). Subclass 457 quarterly report to 30 June 2014. Canberra: Dibp.
  12. Diac (2013a). Subclass 457 State/Territory summary report: 2012-13 to 28 February
  13. 2013. Canberra: Diac. Diac (2013b). Temporary Work (Skilled) (subclass 457) Visa Booklet 9. Canberra: Diac.
  14. Freedland M. and Costello C., editors (2014). Migrants at Work. Oxford: Oup.
  15. Freeman R. (1980). The Exit-Voice Tradeoff in the Labor Market: Unionism, Job Tenure, Quits, and Separations. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 94: 643-673.
  16. Fudge J. (2011). The Precarious Migrant Status and Precarious Employment: The Paradox of International Rights for Migrant Workers. Metropolis British Columbia Working Paper Series, n. 11-15.
  17. Gcim (2005). Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action. Global Commission on International Migration.
  18. Goldring L., Berinstein C. and Bernhard J.K. (2009). Institutionalizing precarious migratory status in Canada. Citizenship Studies, 13: 239-265.
  19. Hirschman A.O. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Boston: Harvard University Press.
  20. Hugo G. (2008). Immigrant Settlement Outside of Australia’s Capital Cities. Population, Space and Place, 14: 553-571;, 10.1002/psp.539DOI: 10.1002/psp.539
  21. International Migration Institute, ed. (2006) Imi Working Papers. Oxford: Imi.
  22. International Labour Organization (2006). The Employment Relationship, Report V(1), International Labour Conference, 95th Session.
  23. Independent Inquiry into Insecure Work in Australia. (2012). Lives On Hold: Unlocking the Potential of Australia's Workforce. Melbourne: Actu.
  24. Joint Standing Committee on Migration. (2007). Temporary visas ... permanent benefits. Ensuring the effectiveness, fairness and integrity of the temporary business visa program. Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
  25. Khoo SE., Voight-Graf C., Hugo G. and McDonald P. (2003). Temporary Skilled Migration to Australia: The 457 Visa Sub-Class. People and Place, 11: 27-40.
  26. Khoo SE., Hugo G. and McDonald P. (2008). Which skilled temporary migrants become permanent residents and why?. International Migration Review, 42: 193-226;, 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00118.DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00118.
  27. Mares P. (2009). Border Control in Australia. In: Higley J., Nieuwenhuysen J. and Neerup S. editors, Immigration and the Financial Crisis: the United States and Australia Compared. Cheltenham/ Northampton: Edward Elgar.
  28. Migration Council Australia. (2013). More than temporary: Australia's 457 visa program. Canberra: Migration Council Australia.
  29. O’Neill J. (2011). Varieties of Unfreedom. Political Economy Working Paper, 4, Manchester University Papers.
  30. Ottonelli V. and Torresi T. (2012). Inclusivist Egalitarian Liberalism and Temporary Migration: A Dilemma. Journal of Political Philosophy, 20: 202-224.
  31. Rcsa (2013). Code for Professional Conduct. http://www.rcsa.com.au/ documents/RCSA%20Code/Code%20Reference%20Documents/Code_for_Professional_Conduct.pdf.
  32. Rodgers G. and Rodgers J. (1989). Precarious Jobs in Labour Market Regulation: The Growth of Atypical Employment in Western Europe. Geneva: Ilo. Supiot A. (2001). Beyond Employment. Changes in Work and the Future of Labour Law in Europe. Oxford: Oup.
  33. Toner P. and Woolley R. (2008). Temporary migration and skills formation in the trades: a provisional assessment. People and Place, 16: 47-57.
  34. Velayutham S. (2013). Precarious experiences of Indians in Australia on 457 temporary work Visas. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 24, 3: 340-361;, 10.1177/1035304613495268DOI: 10.1177/1035304613495268
  35. Vosko L. (2010). Managing the Margins: Gender, Citizenship, and the International Regulation of Precarious Employment. Oxford: Oup.



  1. Iain Campbell, John Burgess, Patchy progress? Two decades of research on precariousness and precarious work in Australia in Labour & Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work /2018 pp. 48, DOI: 10.1080/10301763.2018.1427424

Mimi Zou, Legge sull'immigrazione come regolamento del mercato del lavoro: stato di migrazione temporanea e relazioni di lavoro migrante in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 1/2015, pp. 43-64, DOI:10.3280/MM2015-001003

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche