Clicca qui per scaricare

Il parenting stress nei primi anni di vita del bambino: il ruolo dell’alessitimia e dell’autoefficacia emotiva genitoriale
Titolo Rivista: PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 
Autori/Curatori:  Donatella Scarzello, Laura Elvira Prino 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  20 P. 45-64 Dimensione file:  139 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2015-003003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Gli studi sul parenting stress hanno evidenziato i suoi effetti negativi sul benessere genitoriale, sulle pratiche parentali e sull’adattamento infantile. La presente indagine si inserisce nel filone di ricerca che indaga i fattori associati al parenting stress, focalizzandosi sulle caratteristiche genitoriali e approfondendo nello specifico due aspetti ancora poco studiati in tale ambito, l’alessitimia e l’autoefficacia emotiva, con l’obiettivo di evidenziare anche eventuali differenze tra madri e padri. Hanno partecipato allo studio 126 coppie di genitori di bambini di età compresa tra 9 e 36 mesi. Ai soggetti sono stati somministrati i seguenti strumenti self report: Parenting stress index - short form; Tas 20 - Toronto Alexithymia Scale; scale di autoefficacia nella gestione delle emozioni negative e nell’espressione delle emozioni positive. I risultati indicano che il parenting stress si correla positivamente alle varie dimensioni dell’alessitimia e negativamente all’autoefficacia emotiva, ma con alcune differenze tra padri e madri: l’analisi di regressione evidenzia che per i primi l’alessitimia costituisce un fattore di rischio e l’autoefficacia nella gestione delle emozioni negative un fattore di protezione, mentre per le madri solo l’autoefficacia emotiva sembra giocare un ruolo significativo e l’alessitimia non sembra modulare in modo rilevante i livelli di parenting stress.


Keywords: Parenting stress; autoefficacia; alessitimia

  1. Abidin R.R. (1992). The determinants of parenting behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21 (4): 407-412., DOI: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2104_1
  2. Abidin R.R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index: Professional manual (3rd edn.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
  3. Anthony L.G., Anthony B.J., Glanville D.N., Naiman D.Q., Waanders C. and Shaffer S. (2005). The relationships between parenting stress, parenting behaviour and preschoolers’ social competence and behaviour problems in the classroom. Infant and Child Development, 14 (2): 133-154., DOI: 10.1002/icd.38
  4. Arena D., De Gennaro L., Pecci F., Pitrelli S. e Solano L. (2001). Stile di attaccamento, alessitimia e relazioni interne come predittori della soddisfazione coniugale [Attachment style, alexithymia and internal representation of parental figures as predictors of marital satisfaction]. Psicologia della Salute, 3: 57-69., DOI: 10.1400/6395
  5. Bagby R.M., Parker J.D.A. and Taylor G.J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38 (1): 23-32., DOI: 10.1016/0022-3999(94)90005-
  6. Bandura A. (1997), Self-efficacy. The Exercise of control. New York: Freeman (trad. it.: Autoefficacia: teoria e applicazioni. Trento: Erickson, 2000).
  7. Belsky J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: a process model. Child Development, 55 (1): 83-96., DOI: 10.2307/1129836BenziesK.M.,HarrisonM.J.andMagill-EvansJ.(2004).ParentingStress,MaritalQuality,andChildBehaviorProblemsatAge7Years.PublicHealthNursing,21(2):111-121.DOI:10.1111/j.0737-1209.2004.021204.
  8. Bloomfield L. and Kendall S. (2012). Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behavior before and after a parenting programme. Primary Health Care Research & Developement, 13 (4): 364-372., DOI: 10.1017/S146342361200006
  9. Bressi C., Taylor G.J., Parker J., Bressi S., Brambilla V., Aguglia E., Allegranti I., Bongiorno A., Giberti F., Bucca M., Todarello O., Callegari C., Vender S., Gala C. and Invernizzi G. (1996). Cross validation of the factor structure of the 20-item alexithymia Scale: An Italian Multicenter study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41 (6): 551-559., DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3999(96)00228-
  10. Caprara G.V. e Gerbino M. (2001). Autoefficacia emotiva: la capacità di regolare l’affettività negativa e di esprimere quella positiva [Affective self-efficacy: the capacity to regulate negative affects and to express positive affects]. In Caprara G.V., a cura di, La valutazione dell’autoefficacia [Self-efficacy assessment]. Trento: Erickson, 35-61.
  11. Cassidy J. (1994). Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3): 228-249., DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01287.
  12. Coleman P.K. and Karraker K.H. (2003). Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence in parenting and toddlers behaviour and developmental status. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24 (2): 126-148., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.1004
  13. Cooper C., McLanahan S., Meadows S. and Brooks-Gunn J. (2009). Family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 71 (3): 558-574., DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00619.
  14. Copeland D. and Harbaugh B.L. (2005). Differences in parenting stress between married and single first time mothers at six to eight weeks after birth. Issue in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 28 (3): 139-152., DOI: 10.1080/0146086050022755
  15. Coyl D.D., Roggman L.A. and Newland L.A. (2002). Stress, maternal depression, and negative mother–infant interactions in relation to infant attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23 (1-2): 145-163., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.1000
  16. Crasey G.L. and Reese M. (1996). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of parenting hassles: association with psychological syntomps, nonparenting hassles, and child behaviour problems. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17 (3): 393-406., DOI: 10.1016/S0193-3973(96)90033-
  17. Crnic K.A. and Booth C.L. (1991). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of daily hassles of parenting across early childhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53 (4): 1042-1050., DOI: 10.2307/35300
  18. Crnic K.A. and Low C. (2012). Everyday stresses and parenting. In Bornstein M.H., Handbook of parenting. Practical issues in parenting (2st ed., vol. 5). New York: Psychology Press, 243-267.
  19. Cummings E.M., Davies P.T. and Campbell S.B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process. New York: Guilford.
  20. Deater-Deckard K. (1998). Parenting stress and child adjustment: some old hypotheses and new questions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5 (3): 314-332., DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00152.
  21. Deater-Deckard K. and Scarr S. (1996). Parenting stress among dual earner mothers and fathers: Are there gender differences? Journal of Family Psychology, 10: 45-59., DOI: 10.1037/0893-3200.10.1.4
  22. Ford M.T., Heinen B.A. and Langkamer K.L. (2007). Work and family satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (1): 57-80., DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.57
  23. Gerard J.M., Krishnakumar A. and Buehler C. (2006). Marital conflict, parent-child relationship, and youth maladjustment: A longitudinal investigation of spillover effects. Journal of Family Issues, 27 (7): 951-975., DOI: 10.1177/0192513X0528602
  24. Gianesini G. (2012). Alexithymia dimensions and emotionally perceived parenting styles. In Cusinato M. and L’Abate L., editors, Advances in relational competence theory: With special attention to alexithymia. Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers, 243-268.
  25. Goleman D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
  26. Grazzani Gavazzi I., a cura di (2004). La competenza emotiva. Studi e ricerche nel ciclo di vita [The emotional competence. Studies and research in the life cycle]. Milano: Unicopli.
  27. Guarino A., Di Blasio P., D’Alessio M., Camisasca E. e Serantoni G. (2008). PSI Parenting Stress Index – Forma breve [PSI Parenting Stress Index- short form]. Firenze: Giunti OS.
  28. Jerusalem M. and Schwarzer R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. In Schwarzer R., editor, Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action, Washington: Hemisphere, 195-213.
  29. Jones T.L and Prinz R.J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25 (3): 341-363., DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.00
  30. Hadadian A. and Merbler J. (1996). Mother’s stress: Implications for attachment relationships. Early Child Development and Care, 125 (1): 59-66., DOI: 10.1080/030044396125010
  31. Kalil A., Ziol-Guest K.M. and Coley R.L. (2005). Perceptions of father involvement patterns in teenage-mother families: Predictors and links to mothers’ psychological adjustment. Family Relations, 54 (2): 197-211., DOI: 10.1111/j.0197-6664.2005.00016.
  32. Kendall S., Bloomfield L., Appleton J. and Kitaoka K. (2013). Efficacy of a group-based parenting program on stress and self-efficacy among Japanese mothers: A quasi-experimental study. Nursing and Health Sciences 15 (4): 454-460., DOI: 10.1111/nhs.1205
  33. Khosla M. (2006). Positive affect and coping with stress. Journal of the Indian Academy Of Applied Psychology, 32 (3): 185-192.
  34. Lane R.D. and Schwartz G.E. (1987). Levels of emotional awareness: A cognitive- developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144 (2): 133-143.
  35. Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  36. Mäntymaa M., Puura K., Luoma I., Latva R., Salmelin R.K. and Tamminen, T. (2012). Predicting internalizing and externalizing problems at five years by child and parental factors
  37. in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43 (2): 153-170., DOI: 10.1007/s10578-011-0255-
  38. McBride B.A. (1989). Stress and fathers’ parental competence: implications for family life and parent educators. Family Relations, 38: 385-389.
  39. McBride B.A., Schoppe S.J. and Rane T.R. (2002). Child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement: Fathers versus mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64 (4): 998-1011., DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00998.
  40. McCarthy C.J., Lambert R.G. and Moller N.P. (2006) Preventive resources and emotion regulation expectances as mediators between attachment and college students stress outcomes. International Journal of Stress Management, 13 (1): 1-22., DOI: 10.1037/1072-5245.13.1.
  41. Misri S., Kendrick K., Oberlander T.F., Norris S., Tomfohr L., Zhang H. and Grunau, R.E. (2010). Antenatal depression and anxiety affect postpartum parenting stress: A longitudinal, prospective study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55 (4): 222-228.
  42. Mulsow M., Caldera Y.M., Pursley M., Reifman A. and Huston A.C. (2002). Multilevel factors influencing maternal stress during the first three years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64 (4): 944-956., DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00944.
  43. Naerde A., Tambs K. and Mathiesen K.S. (2002). Child related strain and maternal mental health: A longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 105 (4): 301-309., DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.1010.
  44. Nelson J., O’Brien M., Blankson A., Calkins S. and Keane S. (2009). Family stress and parental responses to children’s negative emotions: Tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Journal of Family Psychology, 23 (5): 671-679., DOI: 10.1037/a001597
  45. Nemiah J.C. and Sifneos P.E. (1970). Psychosomatic illness: A problem in communication. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 18 (1-6): 154-160., DOI: 10.1159/00028607
  46. Noppe I.C., Noppe L.D. and Hughes F.P. (1991). Stress as a predictor of the quality of parentinfant interactions. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 152 (1): 17-28., DOI: 10.1080/00221325.1991.991467
  47. Oddi K.B., Murdock K.W., Vadnais S., Bridgett D.J. and Gartstein M.A. (2013), Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum. Infant and Child Development, 22 (6): 553-579., DOI: 10.1002/icd.1813
  48. Pandey R., Mandal M.K., Taylor G.J. and Parker J.D.A. (1996). Cross-cultural alexithymia: development and validation of a Hindi translation of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52 (2): 173-176., DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199603)52:2<173::AID-JCLP8>3.0.CO;2-
  49. Parker J.D.A., Taylor G.J. and Bagby R.M. (2003). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: III reliability and factorial validity in a community population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55: 269-275., DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00578-
  50. Passino A.W., Whitman T.L., Borkowski J.G., Schellenbach C.J., Maxwell S.E., Keogh D.A. AND Rellinger, E. (1993). Personal adjustment during pregnancy and adolescent parenting. Adolescence, 28 (109): 97-122.
  51. Ponnet K., Wouters E., Mortelmans D., Pasteels I., De Backer C., Van Leeuwen K. and Van Hiel A. (2013). The Influence of Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting Stress and Depressive Symptoms on Own and Partner’s Parent-Child Communication. Family Process, 52 (2): 312-324., DOI: 10.1111/famp.1200
  52. Raikes H.A. and Thompson R.A. (2005). Efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting stress among families in poverty. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26 (3): 177-190., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.2004
  53. Riva Crugnola C. (2002). Regolazione e comunicazione affettiva nelle prime relazioni tra il bambino e il genitore [Regulation and affective communication in the early parent-child relationships]. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 3: 361-397., DOI: 10.1449/807
  54. Rothbart M.K. and Sheese B.E. (2007). Temperament and emotion regulation. In Gross, J.J. editor, Handbook of emotion regulation. New York, NY US: Guilford Press, 331-350.
  55. Saarni C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford Press.
  56. Salovey P. and Mayer J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition and personality, 9 (3): 185-211., DOI: 10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CD
  57. Scher A. and Sharabany R. (2005). Parenting anxiety and stress: Does gender play a part at 3 months of age? Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166 (2): 203-213., DOI: 10.3200/GNTP.166.2.203-21
  58. Schneider T.R., Rench T.A., Lyons J.B. and Riffle R.R. (2012). The influence of neuroticism, extraversion and openness on stress responses. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 28 (2): 102-110., DOI: 10.1002/smi.140
  59. Silk J.S., Vanderbilt-Adriance E., Shaw D.S., Forbes E.E., Whalen D.J, Ryan N.D. and Dahl
  60. R.E. (2007) Resilience among children and adolescents at risk for depression: Mediation and moderation across social and neurobiological contexts. Development and Psychopathology, 19 (3): 841-865., DOI: 10.1017/S0954579407000417
  61. Silver E.J., Heneghan A.M, Bauman L.J. and Stein R.E.K. (2006). The Relationship of Depressive Symptoms to Parenting Competence and Social Support in Inner-City Mothers of Young Children. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10 (1): 105-112., DOI: 10.1007/s10995-005-0024-
  62. Slaski M. and Cartwright S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19 (4): 233-239., DOI: 10.1002/smi.97
  63. Taylor G.J. (1994). The alexithymia construct: conceptualization, validation, and relationship with basic dimensions of personality. New Trends in Experimental and Clinical Psychiatry, 10 (2): 61-74., DOI: 10.1016/S0033-3182(91)72086-0
  64. Taylor G.J. and Bagby M. (2000). An overview of the alexithymia construct. In Bar-On R. and Parker J.D.A., editors, The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 263-276.
  65. Thompson R.J., Merritt K.A., Keith B.R., Bennett L. and Johndrow D.A. (1993). The role of maternal stress and family functioning in maternal distress and mother-reported psychological adjustment of non-referred children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22 (1): 78-84., DOI: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_
  66. Thorberg F.A., Young R.McD., Sullivan K.A. and Lyvers M. (2011). Parental bonding and alexithymia: A meta-analysis. European Psychiatry, 26 (3): 187-193., DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.09.01
  67. Von Eye A. and Bogat G.A. (2006). Person-oriented and variable-oriented research: Concepts, results and development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly-Journal of Developmental Psychology, 52: 390-420., DOI: 10.1353/mpq.2006.0032
  68. Wiedenfeld S.A., O’Leary A., Bandura A., Brown S., Levine S. and Raska K. (1990). Impact of perceived self-efficacy in coping with stressors on components of the immune system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (5): 1082-1094., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.108
  69. Williford A.P., Calkins S.D. and Keane S.P. (2007). Predicting change in parenting stress across early childhood: Child and maternal factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35 (2): 251-263., DOI: 10.1007/s10802-006-9082-3



  1. Laura E. Prino, Luca Rollè, Cristina Sechi, Luciana Patteri, Anna Ambrosoli, Angela M. Caldarera, Eva Gerino, Piera Brustia, Parental Relationship with Twins from Pregnancy to 3 Months: The Relation Among Parenting Stress, Infant Temperament, and Well-Being in Frontiers in Psychology /2016 pp. , DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01628
  2. Maria Elena Brianda, Chiara Sacchi, Pietro De Carli, Alessandra Simonelli, Maltrattamento emotivo e sintomi somatici in età giovanile adulta. Il ruolo di mediazione dello stile di attaccamento romantico in una popolazione femminile in PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 1/2018 pp. 81, DOI: 10.3280/PDS2018-001005

Donatella Scarzello, Laura Elvira Prino, in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2015, pp. 45-64, DOI:10.3280/PDS2015-003003

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche