Clicca qui per scaricare

Quando la relazione non funziona: il maltrattamento su bambini con Disturbo dello Spettro Autistico. Una revisione della letteratura
Titolo Rivista: MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA 
Autori/Curatori: Viviana Guerriero, Antonio Gnazzo, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, Gaia de Campora 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  29 P. 55-83 Dimensione file:  167 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2015-003004
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


La presente rassegna ha avuto come obiettivo la disamina della letteratura relativa al tema del maltrattamento e dell’abuso subìto da bambini affetti da Disturbo dello Spettro Autistico (DSA). Gli studi emersi hanno evidenziato, da una parte, l’elevato rischio di vittimizzazione a cui i bambini con Disturbo dello Spettro Autistico sono esposti e, dall’altra, la scarsità di indagini in grado di fornire informazioni specifiche, soprattutto rispetto all’intervento nelle famiglie. Gli studi esaminati indicano la necessità di stabilire programmi tesi alla prevenzione del maltrattamento e dell’abuso attraverso il miglioramento delle abilità sociali e di problem-solving dei minori e al trattamento delle disfunzioni della relazione genitore-bambino.


Keywords: Disturbo dello Spettro Autistico, maltrattamento sui minori, abuso sessuale, trattamento, relazione genitore-bambino.

  1. Khan M. (1963). The privacy of the Self. Hogart Press, London 1974. trad.it. Lo spazio privato del sé. Bollati Boringhieri, Torino, 1979.
  2. Abbeduto, L., Seltzer, M. M., Shattuck, P., Krauss, M. W., Orsmond, G., & Murphy, M. M. (2004). Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, down syndrome, or fragile X syndrome. Journal Information, 109, 3, 237-254, 10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<237:PWACIM>2.0.CO;2DOI: 10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<237:PWACIM>2.0.CO;2
  3. Adolphs, R., Sears, L., & Piven, J. (2001). Abnormal processing of social information from faces in autism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 2, 232-240,, 10.1162/089892901564289DOI: 10.1162/089892901564289
  4. Agran, M., & Krupp, M. (2010). A preliminary investigation of parents’ opinions about safety skills instruction: An apparent discrepancy between importance and expectation. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 2, 303-311.
  5. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  6. Algood, C. L., Hong, J. S., Gourdine, R. M., & Williams, A. B. (2011). Maltreatment of children with developmental disabilities: An ecological systems analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 7, 1142-1148., 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.02.003DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.02.003
  7. Allen, J. G., Fonagy, P., & Bateman, A. W. (2008). Neurobiology. Mentalizing in clinical practice (pp. 113-146). Washington, London: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  8. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association,, 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349
  9. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  10. Ammaniti, M., Speranza, A. M., Tambelli, R., Muscetta, S., Lucarelli, L., Vismara, L., Odorisio, F., & Cimino, S. (2006). A prevention and promotion intervention program in the field of mother–infant relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 70-90, 10.1002/imhj.20081DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20081
  11. Aniol, K., Mullins, L. L., Page, M. C., Boyd, M. L., & Chaney, J. M. (2004). The relationship between respite care and child abuse potential in parents of children with developmental disabilities: A preliminary report. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 16, 3, 273-285, 10.1023/b:jodd.0000032302.61601.99DOI: 10.1023/b:jodd.0000032302.61601.99
  12. Baio, J. (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 63, 1-21.
  13. Baio, J. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, six sites, United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 56, 1, 1-11.
  14. Balogh, R., Bretherton, K., Whibley, S., Berney, T., Graham, S., Richold, P., Worsley, C., & Firth, H. (2001). Sexual abuse in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 194-201,, 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2001.00293.xDOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2001.00293.x
  15. Baron-Cohen, S. (2000). Theory of mind and autism: A review. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 169-184., 10.1016/s0074-7750(00)80010-5DOI: 10.1016/s0074-7750(00)80010-5
  16. Ben Itzchak, E., Lahat, E., Burgin, R., & Zachor, A. D. (2008). Cognitive, behavior and intervention outcome in young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29, 5, 447-458,, 10.1016/j.ridd.2007.08.003DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2007.08.003
  17. Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90-126,, 10.1016/j.dr.2006.08.002DOI: 10.1016/j.dr.2006.08.002
  18. Bishop, S. L., Richler, J., Cain, A. C., & Lord, C. (2007). Predictors of perceived negative impact in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 6, 450-461
  19. Brogan, C. A., & Knussen, C. (2003). The disclosure of a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder determinants of satisfaction in a sample of Scottish parents. Autism, 7, 1, 31-46,, 10.1177/1362361303007001004DOI: 10.1177/1362361303007001004
  20. Camisasca, E., Miragoli, S., & Di Blasio, P. (2014). La disorganizzazione dell’attaccamento spiega i sintomi post-traumatici nei bambini vittime di violenza? Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 16, 2, 35-55., 10.3280/MAL2014-002003DOI: 10.3280/MAL2014-002003
  21. Cappadocia, M. C., Weiss, J. A., & Pepler, D. (2012). Bullying experiences among children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2, 266-277,, 10.1007/s10803-011-1241-xDOI: 10.1007/s10803-011-1241-x
  22. Capps, L., Sigman, M., & Mundy, P. (1994). Attachment security in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 249-261,, 10.1017/s0954579400004569DOI: 10.1017/s0954579400004569
  23. Davis, N. O., & Carter, A. S. (2008). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: Associations with child characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 7, 1278-1291., 10.1007/s10803-007-0512-zDOI: 10.1007/s10803-007-0512-z
  24. Dazzi, N., & Zavattini, G. C. (2011). Attachment paradigm and the clinical practice. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 38, 4, 729-756,, 10.1421/36100DOI: 10.1421/36100
  25. de Campora, G., D’Onofrio, E., & Zavattini, G. C. (2014). Fattori di rischio precoci nello sviluppo del sovrappeso in età pediatrica. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 2, 265-294,, 10.1421/77906DOI: 10.1421/77906
  26. Dennis, M., Lockyer, L., & Lazenby, A. L. (2000). How high-functioning children with autism understand real and deceptive emotion. Autism, 4, 370-381,, 10.1177/1362361300004004003DOI: 10.1177/1362361300004004003
  27. Dunn, M. E., Burbine, T., Bowers, C. A., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (2001). Moderators of stress in parents of children with autism. Community Mental Health Journal, 37, 1, 39-52.
  28. Edelson, G. (2010). Sexual abuse of children with autism: factors that increase risk and interfere with recognition of abuse. Disability Studies Quarterly. Fisher, M. H., Burke, M. M., & Griffin, M. M. (2013). Teaching young adults with disabilities to respond appropriately to lures from strangers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 528-533, 10.1002/jaba.32DOI: 10.1002/jaba.32
  29. Fonagy, P., Steele, H., Moran, G. S., Steele, M., & Higgit, A. (1991). The capacity of understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 200-217,
  30. Gore, M., & Janssen, K. (2007). What educators need to know about abused children with disabilities. Preventing School Failure, 52, 49-55,, 10.3200/psfl.52.1.49-55DOI: 10.3200/psfl.52.1.49-55
  31. Govindshenoy, M., & Spencer, N. (2007). Abuse of the disabled child: A systematic review of population-based studies. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33, 552-558,, 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00693.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00693.x
  32. Gray, C. A. (2004). Gray’s guide to bullying parts I-III. Jenison Autism Journal, 16, 1, 2-19.
  33. Grayson, J. (2013). Risk of maltreatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. Virginia Child Protection Newsletter, 96.
  34. Green, J., Charman T., Mc Conachie, H., Aldred, C., Slonims, V., Howlin, P., Le Couteur, A., Leadbitter, K., Hudry, K., Byford, S., Barrett, B., Temple, K., Macdonald, W., Pickles, A., & The PACT Consortium (2011). Parentmediated communication-focused treatment for preschool children with autism (PACT); a randomized controlled trial. European Psychiatry, 26, 1897,, 10.1016/s0924-9338(11)73601-xDOI: 10.1016/s0924-9338(11)73601-x
  35. Hastings, R. (2008). Stress in parents of children with autism. In E. McGregor, M. Nunez, K. Cebule & J. C. Gomez (Eds.), Autism: An integrated view from neurocognitive, clinical, and intervention research (pp. 303-324). Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
  36. Hastings, R. P., & Johnson, E. (2001). Stress in UK families conducting intensive home-based behavioral intervention for their young child with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 3, 327-336,, 10.1023/a:1010799320795DOI: 10.1023/a:1010799320795
  37. Hershkowitz, I., Lamb, M. E., & Horowitz, D. (2007).Victimization of children with disabilities. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 629-635,, 10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.629DOI: 10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.629
  38. Hibbard, R. A., & Desch, L. W. (2007). Maltreatment of children with disabilities. Pediatrics, 119, 1018-1025,, 10.1542/peds.2007-0565DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-0565
  39. Hill, E., Berthoz, S., & Frith, U. (2004). Brief report: Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 2, 229-235,, 10.1023/b:jadd.0000022613.41399.14DOI: 10.1023/b:jadd.0000022613.41399.14
  40. Hoffman, C. D., Sweeney, D. P., & Lopez-Wagner, M. C. (2008). Children with autism: Sleep problems and mothers’ stress. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 3, 155-165,, 10.1177/1088357608316271DOI: 10.1177/1088357608316271
  41. Howe, D. (2006). Disabled children, maltreatment and attachment. British Journal of Social Work, 36, 743-760,, 10.1093/bjsw/bch419DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bch419
  42. Kenny, M. C., Bennett, K. D., Dougery, J., & Steele, F. (2013). Teaching general safety and body safety training skills to a Latino preschool male with autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 8, 1092-1102,, 10.1007/s10826-012-9671-4DOI: 10.1007/s10826-012-9671-4
  43. Koller, R. (2000). Sexuality and adolescents with autism. Sexuality and Disability, 18, 2, 125-135,, 10.1023/a:1005567030442DOI: 10.1023/a:1005567030442
  44. Konstantareas, M. M., & Papageorgiou, V. (2006). Effects of temperament, symptom severity and level of functioning on maternal stress in Greek children and youth with ASD. Autism, 10, 6, 593-607., 10.1177/1362361306068511DOI: 10.1177/1362361306068511
  45. Koren Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., Dolev, S., & Yirmiya, N. (2009). Mothers of securely attached children with autism spectrum disorder are more sensitive than mothers of insecurely attached children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 5, 643-650,, 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02043.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02043.x
  46. La Sala, G. B., Iori, V., Fagandini, P., Monti, F., & Blickstein, I. (2006). Coming into the world: A dialogue between Medical and Human Sciences. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter.
  47. Law, J., Plunkett, C., Taylor, J., & Gunning, M. (2009). Developing policy in the provision of parenting programmes: Integrating a review of reviews with the perspectives of both parents and professionals. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 3, 302-312,, 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.00939.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.00939.x
  48. Little, L. (2002). Middle-class mother’s perceptions of peer and sibling victimization among children with Asperger’s syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 25, 1, 43-57,, 10.1080/014608602753504847DOI: 10.1080/014608602753504847
  49. Loftin, R. L., Odom, S., & Lantz, J. (2008). Social interaction and repetitive motor behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1124-1135,, 10.1007/s10803-007-0499-5DOI: 10.1007/s10803-007-0499-5
  50. Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth strange Situation. In M. T.
  51. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in preschool years: Theory, research and intervention. (pp. 121-160). Chicago and London: University of Chicago press.
  52. Mandell, D. S., Walrath, C. H., Mateuffel, G. S., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2005). The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community based mental health settings. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 1359-1372,, 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.06.006DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.06.006
  53. Mansell, W., & Morris, K. (2004). A survey of parents’ reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service Access to information and use of services. Autism, 8, 4, 387-407,, 10.1177/1362361304045213DOI: 10.1177/1362361304045213
  54. Marvin, R., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Powell, B. (2002). The circle of security project: attachment-based intervention with caregiver-pre-school child dyads. Attachment and Human Development, 4, 107-124,, 10.1080/14616730252982491DOI: 10.1080/14616730252982491
  55. Marvin, R. S., & Pianta, R. C. (1996). Mothers’ reactions to their child’s diagnosis: Relations with security of attachment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 4, 436-445,, 10.1207/s15374424jccp2504_8DOI: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2504_8
  56. McStay, R. L., Dissanayake, C., Scheeren, A., Koot, H. M., & Begeer, S. (2013). Parenting stress and autism: The role of age, autism severity, quality of life and problem behaviour of children and adolescents with autism. Autism, 18, 5, 502-510,, 10.1177/1362361313485163DOI: 10.1177/1362361313485163
  57. Miragoli, S., Stagni Brenca, E., & Di Blasio, P. (2011). Stress e alleanza genitoriale, rischio di maltrattamento fisico e problemi comportamentali in bambini di età prescolare. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 1, 65-85,, 10.3280/MAL2011-001004DOI: 10.3280/MAL2011-001004
  58. Naber, F. B. A., Swinkels, S. H. N., Buitelaar, J. K., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Dietz, C., van Daalen, E., & van Engeland, H. (2007). Attachment in toddlers with autism and other developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 6, 1123-1138,, 10.1007/s10803-006-0255-2DOI: 10.1007/s10803-006-0255-2
  59. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons- Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100,, 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094DOI: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094
  60. Nichols, S., & Blakeley-Smith, A. (2010). “I’m not sure we’re ready for this…”: Working with families towards facilitating healthy sexuality for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Social Work in Mental Health, 8, 72-91, 10.1080/15332980902932383.DOI: 10.1080/15332980902932383.
  61. Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., Dolev, S., & Yirmiya, N. (2009). Maternal insightfulness and resolution of the diagnosis are related to secure attachment in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Development, 80, 519-527., 10.1111/j.14678624.2009.01276.xDOI: 10.1111/j.14678624.2009.01276.x
  62. Osborne, L. A., & Reed, P. (2008). Parents’ perceptions of communication with professionals during the diagnosis of autism. Autism, 12, 3, 309-324,, 10.1177/1362361307089517DOI: 10.1177/1362361307089517
  63. Patterson, S. Y., Smith, V., & Jelen, M. (2010). Behavioural intervention practices for stereotypic and repetitive behaviour in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52, 4, 318-327, 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03597.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03597.x
  64. Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., Connolly, J. A., Yuile, A., McMaster, L., & Jiang, D. (2006). A developmental perspective on bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 376-384,, 10.1002/ab.20136DOI: 10.1002/ab.20136
  65. Pineda, J. A., Juavinett, A., & Datko, M. (2012). Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism. Medical Hypotheses, 79, 6, 790-798,, 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.08.031DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.08.031
  66. Pisula, E. (2011). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders. In Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi (Ed.), A comprehensive book on autism spectrum disorders (pp. 87-106),, 10.5772/18507DOI: 10.5772/18507
  67. Poon, K. K. (Ed.). (2009). Educating students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Making schools meaningful. Singapore: Prentice Hall,, 10.4324/9780203111109DOI: 10.4324/9780203111109
  68. Reiersen, A. M. (2011). Links between autism spectrum disorder and ADHD symptom trajectories: Important findings and unanswered questions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 9, 857-859,, 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.012.DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.012.
  69. Richman, D. M., Belmont, J. M., Kim, M., Slavin, C. B., & Hayner, A. K.
  70. (2009). Parenting stress in families of children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Down syndrome. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 21, 6, 537-553,, 10.1007/s10882-009-9156-6DOI: 10.1007/s10882-009-9156-6
  71. Roth, M. E., & Gillis, J. M. (2014). “Convenience with the click of a mouse”: A survey of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder on online dating. Sexuality and Disability, 33, 133-150,, 10.1007/s11195-014-9392-2DOI: 10.1007/s11195-014-9392-2
  72. Rowley, E., Chandler, S., Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Loucas, T., & Charman, T. (2012). The experience of friendship, victimization and bullying in children with an autism spectrum disorder: Associations with child characteristics and school placement. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 3, 1126-1134,, 10.1016/j.rasd.2012.03.004DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2012.03.004
  73. Rutgers, A. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJz-endoorn, M. H., & Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A. (2004). Autism and attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1123-1134,, 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00305.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00305.x
  74. Sevlever, M., Roth, M. E., & Gillis, J. M. (2013). Sexual abuse and offending in autism spectrum disorders. Sexuality and Disability, 31, 2, 189-200,, 10.1007/s11195-013-9286-8DOI: 10.1007/s11195-013-9286-8
  75. Shannon, P. & Agorastou, M. (2006). Identifying children with developmental disabilities receiving child protection services: A national survey of child welfare administrators. Families in Society, 87, 3, 351-357,, 10.1606/1044-3894.3539DOI: 10.1606/1044-3894.3539
  76. Skarbek, D., Hahn, K., & Parrish, P. (2009). Stop sexual abuse in special education: An ecological model of prevention and intervention strategies for sexual abuse in special education. Sexuality and Disabilities, 27, 155-164, 10.1007/s11195-009-9127-yDOI: 10.1007/s11195-009-9127-y
  77. Slade, A., (2010). Relazione genitoriale e funzione riflessiva: teoria, clinica e intervento sociale. Astrolabio, Roma.
  78. SNLG (2011). Il trattamento dei disturbi dello spettro autistico nei bambini e negli adolescenti (Linea Guida 21).
  79. Spencer, N., Devereux, E., Wallace, A., Sundrum, R., Shenoy, M., Bacchus, C., & Logan, S. (2005). Disabling conditions and registration for child abuse and neglect: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 116, 609-613,, 10.1542/peds.2004-1882DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-1882
  80. Stalker, K., & McArthur, K. (2010). Child abuse, child protection and disabled children: a review of recent research. Child Abuse Review, 21, 1, 24-40., 10.1002/car.1154DOI: 10.1002/car.1154
  81. Sullivan, P., & Knutson, J. (2000). Maltreatment and disabilities: A populationbased epidemiological study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 10, 1257-1273,, 10.1016/s0145-2134(00)00190-3.DOI: 10.1016/s0145-2134(00)00190-3.
  82. Tarnai, B., & Wolfe, P. S. (2008). Social stories for sexuality education for persons with autism/pervasive developmental disorder. Sexuality and Disability, 26, 1, 29-36,, 10.1007/s11195-007-9067-3DOI: 10.1007/s11195-007-9067-3
  83. Tomanik, S., Harris, G. E., & Hawkins, J. (2004). The relationship between behaviors exhibited by children with autism and maternal stress. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 29, 1, 16-26,, 10.1080/13668250410001662892DOI: 10.1080/13668250410001662892
  84. van Nijnatten, C., & Heestermans, M. (2012). Communicative empowerment of people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37, 2, 100-111,, 10.3109/13668250.2012.678308DOI: 10.3109/13668250.2012.678308
  85. van Roekel, E., Scholte, R. H., & Didden, R. (2010). Bullying among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1, 63-73,, 10.1007/s10803-009-0832-2DOI: 10.1007/s10803-009-0832-2
  86. Venerosi, A., & Chiarotti, F. (2011). Autismo: dalla ricerca al governo clinico. Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Rapporti ISTISAN, 11, 33.
  87. Volkmar, F., R., & McPartland, J. C. (2014). From Kanner to DSM-5: Autism as an Evolving Diagnostic Concept. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 193-212.
  88. Wainscot, J. J., Naylor, P., Sutcliffe, P., Tantam, D., & Williams, J. V. (2008). Relationships with peers and use of the school environment of mainstream secondary school pupils with Asperger Syndrome (High-Functioning Autism): A case-control study. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8, 1, 25-38.
  89. Willemsen-Swinkels, S. H. N., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Buitelaar, J. K., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Van Engeland, H. (2000). Insecure and disorganized attachment in children with a pervasive developmental disorder: Relationship with social interaction and heart rate. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 759-767., 10.1111/1469-7610.00663DOI: 10.1111/1469-7610.00663
  90. Williams, J. H. G., Whiten, A., Suddendorf, T., & Perrett, D. I. (2001). Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 4, 287-295,, 10.1016/s0149-7634(01)00014-8DOI: 10.1016/s0149-7634(01)00014-8
  91. Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of Internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 14-21,, 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.018DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.018
  92. World Health Organization (2006). Preventing Child Maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. Tr It. Prevenire il maltrattamento sui minori: indicazioni operative e strumenti di analisi. World Health Organization.
  93. World Health Organization (2012). Social determinants of health and wellbeing among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children (hbsc) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.



  1. Simona Di Folco, Gaia de Campora, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, Sintonie e dissintonie nei legami precoci: traiettorie di valutazione e considerazioni cliniche nei contesti ad alto rischio per lo sviluppo infantile in MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL'INFANZIA 2/2016 pp. 71, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2016-002005

Viviana Guerriero, Antonio Gnazzo, Giulio Cesare Zavattini, Gaia de Campora, in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 3/2015, pp. 55-83, DOI:10.3280/MAL2015-003004

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche