Clicca qui per scaricare

Misure di accessibilità nella valutazione dell’equità urbana: una raccolta dei metodi
Autori/Curatori: Dario Canu 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2016 Fascicolo: 116 Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  24 P. 115-138 Dimensione file:  148 KB
DOI:  10.3280/ASUR2016-116006
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

Come si misura l’accessibilità? I metodi di misurazione sono diversi, questo articolo ha lo scopo di classificarli ed organizzarli, proponendo al lettore la forma base di calcolo. Sono riassunte le definizioni di equità, accessibilità ed equità spaziale adottate in letteratura, le quali, interpretate secondo diversi punti di vista, vengono stimate con vari metodi e approcci. Diverse concezioni di accessibilità si riflettono in differenti misurazioni fondate su approcci place-based e people-based.

Keywords: Accessibilità, analisi di network, Equità, Supporto alla Decisione, Equità Spaziale

  1. Anselin L. (1995). Local Indicators of Spatial Association – LISA. Geographical Analysis, 27(2): 93-115., DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4632.1995.tb00338.
  2. Apparicio P. Cloutier M.S. and Shearmur R. (2007). The case of Montreal’s missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets. International Journal of Health Geographies, 6(4)., DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-6-
  3. Bertolini L. (1999). Spatial development patterns and public transport: the application of an analytical model in the Netherlands. Planning Practice and Research, 14(2): 199-210.
  4. , DOI: 10.1080/0269745991572
  5. Bertolini L. and Djist M. (2003). Mobility environments and network cities. Journal of Urban Design, 8(1): 27-43., DOI: 10.1080/135748003200006475
  6. Benenson I., Martens K., Rofé Y. and Kwartler A. (2011). Public transport versus private car GIS-based estimation of accessibility applied to the Tel Aviv metropolitan area. Annals of Regional Science, 47(3): 499-515., DOI: 10.1007/s00168-010-0392-
  7. Blečić I., Cecchini A., Congiu T., Pazzola M. and Trunfio G.A. (2013). A Design and Planning Support System for Walkability and Pedestrian Accessibility. Computational Science and Its Applications, 7974: 284-293., DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39649-6_2
  8. Blečić I., Cecchini A., Congiu T., Fancello G. and Trunfio G.A. (2014). Walkability Explorer. An evaluation and design support tool for walkability. Computational Science and Its Applications, 8582: 511-521., DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09147-1_3
  9. Burns L.D. (1979). Transportation, Temporal, and Spatial Components of Accessibility. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA
  10. Chang H.S. and Liao C.H. (2011). Exploring an integrated method for measuring the relative spatial equity in public facilities in the context of urban parks. Cities, 28: 361-371., DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2011.04.00
  11. Chin H.C. and Foong K.W. (2006). Influence of school accessibility on housing values. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 132(3): 120-129., DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9488(2006)132:3(120
  12. Comber A., Brunsdon C. and Green E. (2008). Using a GIS-based network analysis to determine urban green space accessibility for different ethnic and religious groups. Landscape and Urban Planning, 86(1): 103-114., DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.01.00
  13. Coutts C. (2008). Greenway accessibility and physical-activity behavior. Environment and Planning B, 35: 552-563., DOI: 10.1068/b340
  14. Cowan R. (2005). The Dictionary of Urbanism. Streetwise Press, Wiltshire.
  15. Crompton J.L. and Wicks B.E. (1988). Implementing a preferred equity model for the delivery of leisure services in the US context. Leisure Studies, 7: 287-304., DOI: 10.1080/0261436880039025
  16. Cummins S. and Macintyre S. (2002). A systematic study of an urban foodscape: The price and availability of food in Greater Glasgow. Urban Studies, 39: 2115-2130.
  17. , DOI: 10.1080/004209802200001139
  18. Dalvi M.Q. and Martin K. (1976). Estimate of non work trip demand: A disaggregated approach. In: Bonsall P., Dalvi M.Q. and Hills P.J., eds., Urban Transportation Planning: Current Problems and Future Prospects. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus Press.
  19. Dalvi M.Q. (1978). Behavioural modelling accessibility, mobility and need: concepts and measurement. In: Hensher D.A. and Stopher P.R., eds., Behavioural Travel Modelling. London: Croom Helm.
  20. Dear M. (1974). A paradigm for public facility location theory, Antipode, 6: 46-50., DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.1974.tb00583.
  21. Diez Roux A., Evenson K., McGinn A., Brown D.G., Moore L., Brines S. and Jacobs D.R. (2007). Availability of recreational resources and physical activity in adults. American Journal of Public Health, 97: 493-499., DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.08773
  22. Fainstein S. (2010). The just city. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  23. Farrington J. and Farrington C. (2005). Rural accessibility, social inclusion and social justice: Towards conceptualisation. Journal Transport Geography SPEC ISS 13(1): 1-12., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2004.10.00
  24. Garb Y. and Levine J. (2002). Congestion Pricing’s Conditional Promise: Promotion of Accessibility or Mobility? Transport Policy 9(3): 179-188., DOI: 10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00007-
  25. Geurs K.T., van Eck R. (2001). Accessibility measures: review and applications. Evaluation of accessibility impacts of land use transportation scenarios and related social and economical impact. RIVM Report, Utrecht University.
  26. Geurs K.T., van Wee B. (2004). Accessibility of land-use and transport strategies: Review and research directions. Journal of Transport Geography, 12: 127-140., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2003.10.00
  27. Gutiérrez J. (2001). Location, economic potential and daily accessibility: An analysis of the accessibility impact of the high-speed line Madrid–Barcelona–French border. Journal of Transport Geography, 9: 229-242.
  28. , DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6923(01)00017-5Gutiérrez,J.andUrbanoP.(1996).AccessibilityintheEuropeanUnion:Theimpactofthetrans-Europeanroadnetwork.JournalofTransportGeography,4(1):15-25.DOI:10.1016/0966-6923(95)00042-
  29. Hay A.M. (1995). Concepts of equity, fairness and justice in geographical studies. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20: 500-508., DOI: 10.2307/62297
  30. Handy S.L. and Niemeier D.A. (1997). Measuring accessibility: An exploration of issues and alternatives. Environment and Planning A, 29: 1175-1194., DOI: 10.1068/a29117
  31. Hansen W.G. (1959). How accessibility shapes land use. Journal of American Institute of Planners, 25(1): 73-76., DOI: 10.1080/0194436590897830
  32. Harnik P. (2003). The Excellence City Park System: What Makes it Great and How to Get There. The Trust for Public Land Pub, Washington, DC. Testo dispobibile al sito: (ultimo accesso 03/09/2015)
  33. Harvey D. (1973). Social justice and the city. London: E. Arnold.
  34. Hillsdon M., Panter J., Foster C., Jones A. (2006). The relationship between access and quality of urban green space with population physical activity. Public Health, 120: 1127-1132., DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.10.00
  35. Iacono M., Krizek K.J. and El-Geneidy A. (2010). Measuring non-motorized accessibility: issues, alternatives, and execution. Journal of Transport Geography, 18: 133-140., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.02.00
  36. Ischia G. (2012). La città giusta: idee di piano e atteggiamenti etici. Donzelli Editore, Roma.
  37. Johnston R.J., Gregory D., Pratt G., Watts M. (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  38. Kinman E.L. (1999). Evaluating health services equity at a primary care clinic in Chilimarca. Bolivia Social Science & Medicine, 49(5): 663-678., DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00147-
  39. Knox P.L. (1978). The intraurban ecology of primary medical care: Patterns of accessibility and their policy implications. Environment and Planning A, 10: 415-435., DOI: 10.1068/a10041
  40. Koenig J.G. (1980). Indicators of urban accessibility: Theory and application. Transport, 9: 145-172., DOI: 10.1007/BF0016712
  41. Kunzmann K.R. (1998). Planning for spatial equity in Europe. International Planning Studies, 3(1): 101-121., DOI: 10.1080/1356347980872170
  42. Lau J.C.Y. and Chiu C.C.H. (2003). Accessibility of low-income workers in Hong Kong. Cities, 20(3): 197-204.
  43. , DOI: 10.1016/S0264-2751(03)00013-1LauJ.C.Y.andChiuC.C.H.(2004).Accessibilityofworkersinacompactcity:ThecaseofHongKong.HabitatInternational,28:89-102.DOI:10.1016/S0197-3975(03)00015-
  44. Li Q., Zhang T., Wang H. and Zeng Z. (2011). Dynamic accessibility mapping using floating car data: A network-constrained density estimation approach. Journal of Transport Geography, 19: 379-393., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.07.00
  45. Lindsey G., Maraj M., Kuan S. (2001). Access, equity, and urban greenways: An exploratory investigation. Professional Geographer, 53(3): 332-346., DOI: 10.1111/0033-0124.0028
  46. Linneker B. and Spence N. (1996). Road transport infrastructure and regional economic development: the regional development effects of the M25 London orbital motorway. Journal of Transport Geography, 4(2): 77-92., DOI: 10.1016/0966-6923(96)00001-
  47. Lotfi S. and Koohsari M.J. (2009). Measuring objective accessibility to neighborhood facilities in the city (A case study: Zone 6 in Tehran, Iran). Cities, 26: 133-140., DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2009.02.00
  48. Lovetta A., Haynesa R., Sunnenberga G. and Galeb S. (2002). Car travel time and accessibility by bus to general practitioner services: a study using patient registers and GIS. Social Science & Medicine, 55: 97-111., DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00212-
  49. Lucy W. (1981). Equity and planning for local services. Journal, 47(4): 447-457., DOI: 10.1080/0194436810897652
  50. Luo W. and Wang F. (2003). Measures of spatial accessibility to health care in a GIS environment: Synthesis and a case study in the Chicago region. Environment and Planning B, 30: 865-884., DOI: 10.1068/b2912
  51. Morris J.M., Dumble P.L. and Wigan M.R. (1979). Accessibility indicators for transportation planning. Transportation Research A, 13: 91-109., DOI: 10.1016/0191-2607(79)90012-
  52. Neutens T., Schwanen T., Witlox F. and De Maeyer P. (2010). Equity of urban service delivery: A comparison of different accessibility measures. Environment and Planning A, 42: 1613-1635., DOI: 10.1068/a423
  53. Nicholls S. (2001). Measuring the accessibility and equity of public parks: A case study using GIS. Managing Leisure, 6: 201-219., DOI: 10.1080/1360671011008465
  54. Ogryczak W. (2000). Inequality measures and equitable approach to location problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 122: 374-391., DOI: 10.1016/S0377-2217(99)00240-
  55. Oh K. and Jeong S. (2007). Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(1-2): 25-32., DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.01.01
  56. Omer I. (2006). Evaluating accessibility using house-level data: A spatial equity perspective. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 30: 254-274., DOI: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2005.06.004
  57. Pacione M. (1989). Access to urban services-the case of secondary schools in Glasgow. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 105: 12-18., DOI: 10.1080/0036922891873674
  58. Pasaogullari N. and Doratli N. (2004). Measuring accessibility and utilization of public spaces in Famagusta. Cities, 21(3): 225-232., DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2004.03.00
  59. Pearce J., Witten K., Hiscock R. and Blakely T. (2008). Regional and urban-rural variations in the association of neighbourhood deprivation with community resource access: A national study. Environment and Planning A, 40: 2469-2489., DOI: 10.1068/a40
  60. Preston J. and Rajé F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion. Journal of Transport Geography, 15: 151-160., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.05.00
  61. Recker W.W., Chen C. and McNally M.G. (2001). Measuring the impact of efficient household travel decisions on potential travel time savings and accessibility gains. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35: 339-369., DOI: 10.1016/S0965-8564(99)00062-
  62. Robitaille E. and Herjean P. (2008). An analysis of the accessibility of video lottery terminals: the case of Montréal. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7(2)., DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-7-
  63. Rosero-Bixby L. (2004). Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its equity: A GIS-based study. Social Science & Medicine, 58: 1271-1284., DOI: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00322-
  64. Salonen M. and Toivonen T. (2013). Modelling travel time in urban networks: Comparable measures for private car and public transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 31: 143-153.
  65. , DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.06.01
  66. Sen A.K. (2009). The idea of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Singleton A.D., Longley P. A., Allen R. and O’Brien O. (2011). Estimating secondary school catchment areas and the spatial equity of access. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(3): 241-249., DOI: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.09.00
  67. Smoyer-tomic K.E., Hewko J.N. and Hodgson M.J. (2004). Spatial accessibility and equity of playgrounds in Edmonton, Canada. The Canadian Geographer, 48: 287-302., DOI: 10.1111/j.0008-3658.2004.00061.
  68. Soja E.W. (2010). Seeking spatial justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  69. Taleai M., Sliuzas R. and Flacke J. (2014). An integrated framework to evaluate the equity of urban public facilities using spatial multi-criteria analysis. Cities, 40: 56-69., DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2014.04.00
  70. Talen E. (1997). The social equity of urban service distribution: an exploration of park access in Pueblo, Colorado, and Macon, Georgia. Urban Geography, 18: 521-541.
  71. , DOI: 10.2747/0272-3638.18.6.521TalenE.(2003).Neighborhoodsasserviceproviders:amethodologyforevaluatingpedestrianaccess.EnvironmentandPlanningB,30:181-200.DOI:10.1068/b1297
  72. Talen E. and Anselin L. (1998). Assessing spatial equity: An evaluation of measures of accessibility to public playgrounds. Environment and Planning A, 30: 595-613., DOI: 10.1068/a30059
  73. Tanser F., Gijsbertsen B. and Herbst K. (2006). Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: An exploration using a geographical information system. Social Science & Medicine, 63: 691-705., DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.01.01
  74. Truelove M. (1993). Measurement of spatial equity. Environment and Planning C, 11: 19-34., DOI: 10.1068/c11001
  75. Truelove M. (2000). Services for immigrant women: An evaluation of locations. The Canadian Geographer, 44: 135-151., DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.2000.tb00698.
  76. Tsou K.W., Hung Y.T. and Chang Y.L. (2005). An accessibility-based integrated measure of relative spatial equity in urban public facilities. Cities, 22(6): 424-435., DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2005.07.00
  77. Vandenbulcke G., Steenberghen T. and Thomas I. (2007). Accessibility indicators to places and transports. Brussels : Politique Scientifique Fédérale et SPF Mobilité et Transports. Testo disponibile al sito: (ultimo accesso 03/09/2015).
  78. Vandenbulcke G., Steenberghen T. and Thomas I. (2009). Mapping accessibility in Belgium: a tool for land-use and transport planning?. Journal of Transport Geography, 17: 39-53., DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2008.04.00
  79. Witten K., Hiscock R., Pearce J. and Blakely T. (2008). Neighborhood access to open spaces and the physical activity of residents: A national study. Preventive Medicine, 47: 299-303., DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.04.01
  80. Yiannakoulias N., Bland W. and Svenson L.W. (2013). Estimating the effect of turn penalties and traffic congestion on measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care. Applied Geography, 39: 172-182., DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.12.00

Dario Canu, in "ARCHIVIO DI STUDI URBANI E REGIONALI" 116/2016, pp. 115-138, DOI:10.3280/ASUR2016-116006


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche