This article intends to discuss the plan to colonize the Sicilian latifundia (the vaste land-owners’ estate) and, in particular, the construction of small rural towns between 1939 and 1943 realized through the work of the Agency for the colonization of Sicilian land-owners estate. My main interest is more addressed to the connection between the plans to transform the rural landscape and the debate on the theory of development after the I World War, than to the history of Fascist politics. In other words, I focused my attention in the history of planning and realization of the Sicilian plan as a contribution to an interpretation of the territorial cohesion policy and the relevance of the relationship between its effectiveness and political decision making. In particular, I have examined the evolution of territorial planning, stressing some common features between the Fascist land reclamation laws, the agrarian reforms of the 1950s and the subsequent policy of regional planning.
Keywords: Internal Colonization, History of Fascism, Regional planning, Urban planning, Southern Question