Clicca qui per scaricare

The Crisis of Free Movement in the European Union
Titolo Rivista: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Autori/Curatori: Nathan Lillie, Anna Simola 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2016 Fascicolo: 3  Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  14 P. 7-19 Dimensione file:  198 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2016-003001
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


This article makes the case that the institutional construction of the EU integration process has furthered the cause of free movement, but is producing a backlash against the free mobility of persons because of its mechanistic dynamics. The backlash against free movement is manifesting in constraints on the social rights of mobile EU citizens, producing precarity. Because the EU has large numbers of people moving all the time, limiting their citizenship access means creating a vast underclass. People are able to move from place to place to work, but have different access to social rights depending on the value of their labour on the market, and on their relationship to the territory they are in. Their lack of rights makes them more desperate, so they accept less, which in turn worsens the labour market conditions for all workers. Greater limits on social citizenship rights, worsens the problem it intends to solve because it recommodifies the labour of those caught outside the charmed circle of social citizenship.

L’articolo argomenta che la costruzione istituzionale del processo di integrazione dell’Unione europea ha promosso la libera circolazione, producendo però un effetto boomerang a causa delle dinamiche meccanicistiche che la caratterizzano. La reazione contro la libertà di movimento si manifesta nella riduzione dei diritti sociali riconosciuti ai cittadini , che a sua volta produce un incremento della precarietà dei migranti interni. Considerato l’elevato numero di cittadini UE mobili, limitare il loro accesso alla cittadinanza significa creare una vasta sottoclasse, poiché gli individui possono muoversi da un posto all’altro per lavorare, ma hanno un accesso differenziato ai diritti sociali in base al valore della loro forza lavoro nel mercato e alla loro relazione con il territorio in cui si trovano. La mancanza di diritti li rende più vulnerabili e disponibili ad accettare paghe più basse, producendo un inasprimento delle condizioni di lavoro per tutti i lavoratori. Di conseguenza, l’introduzione di limiti ai diritti sociali di cittadinanza, peggiora ulteriormente il problema che vorrebbe risolvere, poiché genera un processo di ri-mercificazione del lavoro di chi è escluso dall’affascinante sfera della cittadinanza sociale.
Keywords: Libertà di movimento, integrazione europea, migrazioni lavorative, diritti sociali europei, cittadinanza sociale, cittadinanza dell’Unione Europea

  1. Ackers L., Dwyer P. (2002). Senior Citizenship? Retirement, migration and welfare in the European Union. Bristol: Polity Press.
  2. Anderson B. (2015). Immigration and the Worker Citizen. In: Anderson B., Hughes V., eds., cit.: 41-57.
  3. Anderson B., Hughes V., eds. (2015). Citizenship and Its Others. Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave.
  4. Balabanova E., Balch A. (2015). Sending and receiving: The ethical framing of intra- eu migration in the European press, European Journal of Communication, 25, 4: 382-397.
  5. Barbulescu R, Beaudonnet L. (2014). Protecting Us, Protecting Europe? Public Concern about Immigration and Declining Support for European Integration in Italy. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 15, 2: 216-237.
  6. Barbulescu R., Lafleur J-M. and Stanek M. (2015). Western Europe 2016. London: Routledge.
  7. Berntsen L., Nathan L. (2016). Hyper-mobile migrant workers and Dutch trade union representation strategies at the Eemshaven construction sites. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 37, 1: 171-187.
  8. Brack N., Startin N. (2015). Introduction: Euroscepticism, from the margins to the mainstream. International Political Science, 36, 3: 239-249.
  9. Carens J. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Carrera S. (2014). The Framing of the Roma as Abnormal eu Citizens: Assessing European Politics on Roma Evictions and Expulsions in France. In: Guild et al., eds., cit.: 33-63.
  11. Currie S. (2008). Migration, Work and Citizenship in the Enlarged European Union. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  12. de Witte B., Micklitz H-W., eds. (2012). The European Court of Justice and the Autonomy of the Member States. Leiden: Intersentia.
  13. Dougan, M. (2016). National Welfare Systems, Residency Requirements and eu Law: Some Brief Comments. European Journal of Social Security, 18, 2: 101-105
  14. Dustmann C., Frattini T. (2014). The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the uk. Economic Journal, 124, 580: 593-643.
  15. Erne R. (2015). A supranational regime that nationalizes social conflict: Explaining European trade unions' difficulties in politicizing European economic governance. Labor History, 56, 3: 345-368.
  16. Esping-Andersson, Gosta (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton University Press.
  17. Eurobarometer (2015). Standard Eurobarometer 83, Public Oppinion in the eu. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/ eb83/eb83_ publ_ en.pdf
  18. Favell A., Reimer D. (2014). Winners and Losers? Citizens and Sceptics? European Integration and the Spread of Cosmopolitanism. Eucross Policy Brief: 1-11.
  19. Follesdal A. and Hix S. (2006). Why There Is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44, 3: 533-562.
  20. Gerhards J., Lengfeld H., Häuberer J. (2016). Do European citizens support the idea of a European welfare state? Evidence from a comparative survey conducted in three EU member states. International Sociology, August 18, 2016,, DOI: 10.1177/0268580916662385.
  21. Greer I. (2015). Welfare Reform, Precarity and the Re-commodification of Labour. Work, Employment and Society, May 13, 2015,, DOI: 10.1177/0950017015572578
  22. Groenendijk K. et al., eds. (2009). Illiberal Liberal States: Immigration, Citizenship and Integration in the eu. Farnham & Burlington.
  23. Guild E., Kostakopoulou D., Gortázar Rotaeche C., eds. (2015). The Reconceptualization of European Union Citizenship. Leiden & Boston: Brill.
  24. Haas E. (1958). The Uniting of Europe. Berkeley: Stanford University Press.
  25. Habermas J. (2012). The Crises of the European Union: A Response. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  26. Höpner M., Schäfer A. (2012). Embeddedness in Regional Integration: Waiting for Polayni in a Hayekian Setting. International Organisation, 66, 3: 429-55.
  27. Kostakopoulou D. (2012). The European Court of Justice, Member State Autonomy and European Union Citizenship; Conjunctions and Disjunctions. In: de Witte B., Micklitz H-W., eds., cit.: 175-203.
  28. Lillie N. (2016). The Right Not to Have Rights: Posted Worker Acquiescence and the European Union Labor Rights Framework. Theoretical Inquiries In Law, 17, 40.
  29. Maas W. (2013). Free Movement and Discrimination: Evidence from Europe, the United States, and Canada. European Journal of Migration and Law 15: 91-110.
  30. Minderhound P. (2009). Access to Social Assitance Benefits and the Directive 2004/38. In: Groenendijk K. et al., eds., cit.
  31. Paul R. (2016). Negotiating varieties of capitalism? Crisis and change in contemporary British and German labour migration policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42, 10: 1631-1650.
  32. Polanyi K. (1944). The Great Transformation. Gollancz
  33. Pouza T. (2016). eu posted worker reform is blow to single market. eu Observer, https://euobserver.com/opinion/132609.
  34. Recchi E. (2015). Mobile Europe. The theory and practice of Free Movement in the EU. Houndmills & New York: Palgrave.
  35. Rosamund B. (2005). The uniting of Europe and the foundation of EU studies: Revisiting the neofunctionalism of Ernst B. Haas. Journal of European Public Policy. 12, 2: 237-254.
  36. Sassen S. (2014). Expulsions: brutality and complexity in the global economy. Massachusetts & London: Harvard University Press.
  37. Scharpf F. (2006). The Joint Decision Trap Revisited. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 4: 845-865.
  38. Schierup C-U., Hansen P., Castels S. (2006). Migration, Citizenship, and the European Welfare State. A European Dilemma. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
  39. Schumman R., The Schuman Declaration – 9 May 1950. https://europa.eu/ european - union/about-eu/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration_en.
  40. Somers M. (2008). Genealogies of Citizenship: Markets, Statelessness, and the Right to Have Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  41. Stone Sweet A. (2004). The Judicial Construction of Europe. Oxford: Oxford U.P.
  42. Tonkiss K. (2013). Post-national citizenship without port-national identity? A case-study of uk immigration policy and intra-EU migration. Journal of Global Ethics, 9, 1: 35-48.
  43. Wagner I. (2015). The Political Economy of Borders in a 'Borderless' European Labour Market. Journal of Common Market Studies, 53, 6: 1370-1385.



  1. Joana Marques, Luísa Veloso, Catarina Sales Oliveira, Free mobility, locked rights: the posting of construction workers from Portugal in Mobilities /2021 pp. 404, DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2020.1863552
  2. Diego Coletto, Giovanna Fullin, Before Landing: How Do New European Emigrants Prepare Their Departure and Imagine Their Destinations? in Social Inclusion /2019 pp. 39, DOI: 10.17645/si.v7i4.2381
  3. Charles Woolfson, The ‘Singapore scenario’: the uncertain prospects for labour standards in post-Brexit Britain in Industrial Relations Journal /2017 pp. 384, DOI: 10.1111/irj.12198

Nathan Lillie, Anna Simola, La crisi della libertà di movimento nell’Unione Europea in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 3/2016, pp. 7-19, DOI:10.3280/MM2016-003001

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche