The article describes the birth of Sociology and Organizational Sciences in Italy at the Center for Research and Sociological Studies on the Organization (SRSSO) at Olivetti in Ivrea. It was founded by Alessandro Pizzorno, was launched by Luciano Gallino in the moment of maximum expansion of the company with the seminal works that explained the reasons for this growth and have established those disciplines in Italy. After his resignation, the Centre was directed by Federico Butera during the tumultuous transition from mechanics to electronics. The article analyzes the scientific contributions of the seminal work of Gallino based on systems theory and cybernetics, and the proposals of the new models of the "azienda processiva" and of the responsible enterprise. It explores the subjective and objective reasons why Gallino in the second half of the ‘70s moves away from those scientific areas. The article describes the role that the SRSSO had in the analysis of changes in production systems and implementation of assembly islands, operating upon the real organization using the high-participatory methods of action research. Characters of the organizational sociology at Olivetti were: the analytical rigor and the use of categories of general sociology; his being "at the crossroad" of various disciplines; the organization as a two-way system in continous transaction with the environment; the "biology" of the organization does not reducible to the economy and technology; the organizational design as a complex social process; the organization’s role in helping to solve major societal problems. These are some elements of the legacy of the founding stage of sciences of organiztion that can and should still be used and vitalized in the next future by young researchers, professionals in developing an Italy by design.
Keywords: Organization; corporate social responsibility; production islands; Olivetti; real organization; action research.