Clicca qui per scaricare

Improved Infrastructure and Agricultural Exports from Central Asia
Titolo Rivista: ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE 
Autori/Curatori: Richard Pomfret 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  23 P. 35-57 Dimensione file:  173 KB
DOI:  10.3280/ECAG2017-001003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Despite a centuries-long history of exporting fruit and vegetables and other farm products, the Central Asian countries’ agricultural exports are currently dominated by a handful of products: cotton from southern Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), and wheat from northern Kazakhstan. The major explanation of this phenomenon is the high transport costs which many writers have related to the region’s landlocked status, but the costs have been as much due to poor policies and institutions as to geography. High trade costs have contributed to the commodity concentration of Central Asian exports insofar as the main exports have been worth exporting even with high trade costs. The exports squeezed out by high trade costs are goods traded in smaller quantities or with lower profit margins or with greater sensitivity to delays and uncertainty in transit. These are primarily produced by small and medium-sized farms or other enterprises, and lower trade costs will promote pro-poor growth. The situation is potentially changing in the 2010s as there are positive signs that both the hard and soft infrastructure of international trade are improving in Central Asia. China’s rapidly growing economic involvement in Central Asia since the turn of the century, and announcement of the potentially well-funded Silk Road Economic Belt, provides an East-West dimension to augment the North-South dimension inherited from the Soviet era. The Eurasian Economic Union is the first significant example of a regional trade agreement being implemented in the region since the dissolution of the ussr. Iran’s reincorporation into the global economy and, less definitely, prospects of stability in Afghanistan could introduce further vectors into Central Asia’s international economic relations. The extent to which these potential changes and investment in hard infrastructure will promote trade and agricultural development will depend crucially on domestic ease of doing business and on improved soft infrastructure for international trade.


Keywords: Eurasia, agricultural trade, value chains

  1. ADB (2006). Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport and Customs Transit. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  2. ADB (2014a). Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Corridor Performance and Monitoring: A forward-looking retrospective. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  3. ADB (2014b). Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Expand Trade and Ensure Food Safety; proceedings of the 2nd. CAREC trade facilitation learning opportunity, Mongolia, 6-8 October 2014. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  4. Belgibayev, M. & Zhang, X. (2016). The obor and the “Nurly Zhol - Path to the Future”; Complementarity and challenges. Wuhan University Center of Economic Diplomacy --- available at www.whuced.com/show/?id=308&page=1&siteid=3.
  5. Birkman, L., Kaloshnika, M., Khan, M., Shavurov, U. & Smallhouse, S. (2012). Textile and Apparel Cluster in Kyrgyzstan. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Kennedy School and Harvard Business School.
  6. Buchanan, J. & Yoon, Y. (2000). Symmetric Tragedies: Commons and Anticommons. Journal of Law and Economics, 43(1), 1-13.
  7. Burkitbayeva, S. & Kerr, W. (2013). The Accession of Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine to the WTO: What will it mean for the world trade in wheat? CATPRN Paper 2013-06, Canadian Agricultural Trade Policy and Competitiveness Research Network.
  8. Cadot, O., Carrère, C. & Grigoriou, C. (2006). Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade in Central Asia. Washington DC: World Bank.
  9. Coulibaly, S. & Thomsen, L. (2016). Connecting to Regional Markets? Transport, logistics services and international transit challenges for Central Asian foodprocessing firms. Central Asian Survey, 35(1), 16-25.
  10. Grigoriou, C. (2007). Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade: New estimates for Central Asian countries. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4335, World Bank, Washington DC.
  11. Hegay, S. (2013). Diversity of Beans grown in Kyrgyzstan and marker-aided Breeding for Resistance to Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Anthracnose, Doctoral Thesis No. 2013:35, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Science, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Alnarp.
  12. Heller, M. (1998). The Tragedy of the Anticommons. Harvard Law Review, 111(3), 621-688.
  13. Kaminski, B. & Mitra, S. (2012). Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia: Emerging patterns of trade and cross-border cooperation. Washington DC: World Bank.
  14. Kaminski, B. & Raballand, G. (2009). Entrepôt for Chinese Consumer Goods in Central Asia: Re-exports through Kyrgyzstan - A Statistical Puzzle. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50, 581-90.
  15. Kimhi, A. & Lerman, Z., eds. (2015). Agricultural Transition in Post-Soviet Europe and Central Asia after 25 Years. Halle: Leibniz-Institut für Agrarentwicklung in Transformationsökonomien (iamo).
  16. Laruelle, M. & Peyrouse, S. (2012). Globalizing Central Asia. Geopolitics and the Challenges of Economic Development. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
  17. Li, Y., Bolton, K. & Westphal, T. (2016). The Effect of the New Silk Road Railways on Aggregate Trade Volumes between China and Europe. Institute of East Asia Studies Working Paper No. 109. Germany: Universität Duisburg Essen.
  18. Linn, J. (2004). Economic (Dis)Integration Matters: The Soviet Collapse Revisited. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.
  19. Mogilevskii, R. (2012). Trends and Patterns in Foreign Trade of Central Asian Countries. University of Central Asia Institute of Public Policy and Administration, Working Paper No. 1.
  20. Nag, R., Linn, J. & Kohli, H. eds. (2016). Central Asia 2050. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  21. Nurbek, J. (2014). Export-driven sme Development in Kyrgyzstan: The Garment Manufacturing Sector. Institute of Public Policy and Administration Working Paper No. 26. Bishkek: University of Central Asia.
  22. oecd (2013). Review of Agricultural Policies, Kazakhstan 2013. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
  23. Pomfret, R. (2014). Trade Costs and Agricultural Trade in Central Asia. Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO) Discussion Paper No. 146, Halle, Germany.
  24. Pomfret, R. & Sourdin, P. (2014). Global Value-Chains and Connectivity in Developing Asia – with application to the Central and West Asian region. ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 142. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  25. Pomfret, R. & Sourdin, P. (2016). Value Chains in Europe and Asia. Which countries participate? International Economics.
  26. Raballand, G. (2003). Determinants of the Negative Impact of being Landlocked on Trade: An empirical investigation through the Central Asian case. Comparative Economic Studies, 45(4), 520-36.
  27. Sourdin, P. & Pomfret, R. (2012). Trade Facilitation: Defining, measuring, explaining and reducing the cost of international trade. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar.
  28. Tilekeyev, K. (2013). Productivity Implications of Participation in Export Activities: The case of farmers in Talas Oblast of Kyrgyzstan. University of Central Asia Institute of Public Policy and Administration, Working Paper No. 17.
  29. undp (2005). Central Asia Human Development Report: Bringing Down Barriers: Regional cooperation for human development and human security. Bratislava: United Nations Development Programme.
  30. Weigand, C. (2011). Wheat Import Projections Towards 2050. Arlington VA: US Wheat Associates.
  31. World Bank (2009). Bazaars and Trade Integration in CAREC Countries. Washington DC: World Bank.
  32. Yuldasheva, G. (2013). The Northern Distribution Network and Central Asia. In A. Sprūds & D. Potjomkina (Eds.), Northern Distribution Network: Redefining partnerships within NATO and beyond. Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs.

Richard Pomfret, in "ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE" 1/2017, pp. 35-57, DOI:10.3280/ECAG2017-001003

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche