The article examines an essay published in 1955 on Il movimento di Liberazione in Italia, focusing on the story of a group of Jews who in 1941-1943 tried to cross the border between Croatia and the Italian territory of Fiume/Rijeka, and the role played by the local police chief, Giovanni Palatucci. This study is based on primary sources held in Italian and international archives, and on the scholarship written over the last fifty years. The article challenges the account of "5,000" Jews able to reach Fiume from Croatia through a "channel" coordinated and "directed" by the head of the Foreigners’ Office of the police. Such an account is not supported by available sources or by existing studies. The primary sources examined for this article throw new light on the history of those Jewish refugees from former Yugoslavia who sought shelter in Italy.
Keywords: Shoah, Croatia, Italy