This paper investigates the relations between Ericksonian hypnosis and the therapeutic method that Swiss neurologist Roger Vittoz developed in the early 1900s as a way to rebalance neuropsychological activity in nervous disturbances. The method developed by Vittoz consists in physical relaxation and concentration exercises, as well as in sensory receptivity, in order to develop the patient’s atten-tion and conscious activity. Peculiar to this method is the focus on a mental vibra-tion, or "wave", that the therapist is capable of perceiving by placing his hand on the forehead of the patient. In this way, the therapist is able to evaluate the pa-tient’s mental activity during the therapy and to verify its accuracy. During the ex-ercises, the patient reaches a state of deep body relaxation, accompanied by a slight modification of consciousness, which could be interpreted as a state of hypnotic trance. In this study, we will try to understand if the minimal cues, which, according to Milton Erikson, characterize the normal state of hypnosis, are also present in the trance induced by the Vittoz method. We will later try to evaluate if the mental vibrations, central to the Vittoz method, are also perceivable in trance states induced by Eriksonian hypnosis, and to account for features and potential difference with respect to mental vibrations perceived during trance state induced by the Vittoz method. The study was carried out on volunteers and the evaluation conducted by a therapist Vittoz and a psychotherapist in Ericksonian hypnosis. Ultimately, we will discuss the results obtained and the differences found between the two techniques, with a short indication to the psycho-neurophysiological correlations.
Keywords: Vittoz, consciousness, attention, receptivity, wave, hypnosis.
- Allen M., Dietz M., Blair K.S., Beek M., Rees G., Vestergaard-Poulsen P., Lutz A., Roepstorff A. (2012). Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(44): 15.601-15.610., 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2957-12.2012DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2957-12.2012
- Avicenna (1999). Kitab al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (Il Canone della Medicina). Great Books of the Islamic World.
- Bordoni B., Zanier E. (2015). Sutherland’s legacy in the new millennium: the oste-opathic cranial model and modern osteopathy. Advances in Mind-Body Medi-cine, 29(2): 15-21.
- De Benedittis G. (2003). Understanding the multidimensional mechanism of hyp-notic analgesia. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20(2): 59-80.
- De Benedittis G. (2015). Neural mechanism of hypnosis and meditation. Journal of Physiology ‒ Paris, 109(4-6): 152-164.
- Del Casale A., Ferracuti S., Rapinesi C., Serata D., Sani G., Savoja V., Kotsalidis D.G., Tatarelli R., Girardi P. (2012). Neurocognition under hypnosis. Findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 60(3): 286-317., 10.1080/00207144.2012.675295DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2012.675295
- Ellenberger H.F. (1976). La scoperta dell’inconscio. Torino: Bolinghieri.
- Elkins G.R., Barabasz A.F., Council J.R., Spiegel D. (2014). Advancing Research and Practice: The Revised APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57: 378-385., 10.1080/00029157.2015.1011465DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2015.1011465
- Erickson M. (1954). Hypnotism. Encyclopedia Britannica. 14th Ed. Vol.12.
- Ferrari A. (2002). Dizionario di mitologia greca e latina. Torino: UTET.
- Gay A., Gattegno C. (1952). Un nouveau phénomène psychosomatique. Parigi: Delachaux et Niestlé.
- Gay-Laurans M. (1990). La Psychosynthese Unicitaire. Lyon: L’Interdisciplinaire.
- Granone F. (1989). Trattato di ipnosi. Torino: UTET.
- Ilza Veith (2006). Testo Classico di Medicina Interna dell’Imperatore Giallo. Ro-ma: Mediterranee.
- Jensen E. (2009). Enriching the brain. How to Maximize Every Learner’s Poten-tial. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Jung C.G. (1977). Gli archetipi dell’inconscio collettivo. Torino: Boringhieri.
- Kabat-Zin J. (1997). Dovunque tu vada ci sei già. Milano: Corbaccio.
- Kandel E.R., Schwartz J.H., Jessel T.M. (2000). Principles of neural science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Mahncke H.W., Bronstone A., Merzenich M.M. (2006). Brain Plasticity and Func-tional Losses in the Aged: Scientific Bases for a Novel Intervention. Progress in Brain Research, 157: 81-109., 10.1016/S0079-6123(06)57006-2DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123(06)57006-2
- Merzenich M.M. (2005). Change mind for the better. Journal on Active Aging, (12): 22-29.
- Nardone G., Loriedo C., Zeig J, Watzlawick P. (2006). Ipnosi e terapie ipnotiche. Milano: Ponte delle Grazie.
- Nelson K.E., Sergueff N., Lipinski C.M., Chapman A.R., Glonek T. (2001). Cranial rhythmic impluse related to the Traube-hering-Mayer oscillation: comparing laser-Doppler flowmetry and palpation, Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 101(3): 163-173.
- Russo M.T. (2006). La ferita di Chirone. Milano: Vita e pensiero.
- Vittoz R. (1992). Traitement des psychonévroses par la rééducation du control cérébral. Parigi: Tequi.
- Zeig J.K. (1990). Erickson. Un’introduzione all’uomo e alla sua opera. Roma: Astrolabio.
Elisabetta Rossi, Comparing ericksonian hypnosis with Vittoz method through the observation of minimal cues and Vittoz wave in "IPNOSI" 1/2017, pp. 68-79, DOI:10.3280/IPN2017-001004