Click here to download

The economic case of psychosocial care of Unaccompanied Foreign Minors (UAMs) in Italy: A brief policy report
Journal Title: MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA 
Author/s: Vittoria Ardino, Giacomo Di Benedetto 
Year:  2017 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  25 Pg. 55-79 FullText PDF:  289 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2017-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Objective. To conduct an economic evaluation of psychosocial care for unaccompanied foreign minors in Italy. Methods. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed by comparing the current system of care with an Empirically Based Model (EBM) and by adopting both a health and social care and a societal perspective. If the EBM was successful in providing a more adequate care, cost savings could arise from reduced use of health and social care services, education support, and from problematic behaviours averted. Results. Results suggest that the EBM implementation could reduce service use and longer term adverse outcomes. The programme could be a cost saving to the health and social care system and to the society with a cost-benefit ratio of 1€: 2.36€ and an overall saving to society of 4,581,300 €. Conclusions. Psychosocial care is crucial to the well being of UAMs. These results underscore the importance of considering a more integrated system of care for promoting further cost-effective psychosocial programmes.
Keywords: Unaccompanied foreign minors, economic evaluation, pyschosocial care, policy.

  1. Accorinti, M. (2015). Unaccompanied Foreign Minors in Italy: Procedures and Practices. Review of History and Political Science, 3, 1, 60-72,
  2. Barrie, L., & Mendes, P. (2011). The experiences of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in and leaving the out-of-home care system in the UK and Australia: A critical review of the literature. International Social Work, 54, 4, 485-503,, 10.1177/0020872810389318DOI: 10.1177/0020872810389318
  3. Bean, T., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E., Mooijaart, A., & Spinhoven, P. (2006). Factors associated with mental health service need and utilization among unaccompanied refugee adolescents. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 33, 3, 342-355,
  4. Beecham, J. (2014). Annual Research Review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: A review of progress in economic studies across different disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 6, 714-732,
  5. Bonin, E. M., Stevens, M., Beecham, J., Byford, S., & Parsonage, M. (2011). Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: A modelling study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 1, 803,, 10.1186/1471-2458-11-803DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-803
  6. Bronstein, I., & Montgomery, P. (2011). Psychological distress in refugee children: A systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 44-56,
  7. Bronstein, I., Montgomery, P., & Ott, E. (2013) Emotional and behavioural problems amongst Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: Results from a large-scale cross-sectional study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 285-294,
  8. Carr, C. P., Martins, C. M. S., Stingel, A. M., Lemgruber, V. B., & Juruena, M. F. (2013). The role of early life stress in adult psychiatric disorders: A systematic review according to childhood trauma subtypes. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 201, 12, 1007-1020,, 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000049DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000049
  9. Catani, C., Jacob, N., Schauer, E., Kohila, M., & Neuner, F. (2008). Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children’s mental health in Sri Lanka. BMC psychiatry, 8, 1, 33,, 10.1186/1471-244X-8-33DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-33
  10. Celikaksoy, A. & Wadensjo, E. (2016). Mapping Experiences and Research About Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Sweden and Other Countries. IZA Discussion Paper No. 10143 --(disponibile online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2826977).
  11. Clayton, R. R., & Illback, R. J. (2013). Economic justification of the jigsaw model of early intervention & prevention. Dublin, Ireland: The National Centre for Youth Mental Health.
  12. Colucci, E., Minas, H., Szwarc, J., Guerra, C., & Paxton, G. (2015). In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee-background young people accessing mental health services. Transcultural psychiatry, 52, 6, 766-790,, 10.1177/1363461515571624DOI: 10.1177/1363461515571624
  13. D’Amico, F., Knapp, M., Beecham, J., Sandberg, S., Taylor, E., & Sayal, K. (2014). Use of services and associated costs for young adults with childhood hyperactivity/conduct problems: 20-year follow-up. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 6, 441-447,
  14. De Anstiss, H., & Ziaian, T. (2010). Mental health help-seeking and refugee adolescents: Qualitative findings from a mixed-methods investigation. Australian Psychologist, 45, 1, 29-37.
  15. De Anstiss, H., Tehereh, Z., Procter, N., Warland, J. & Baghurst, P. (2009). Help-seeking for Mental Health Problems in Young Refugees: A Review of the Literature with Implications for Policy, Practice, and Research. Transcultural Psychiatry, 46, 4, 584-607,, 10.1177/1363461509351363DOI: 10.1177/1363461509351363
  16. Derluyn, I., Mels, C., & Broekaert, E. (2009). Mental health problems in separated refugee adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 3, 291-297,
  17. Feldman, R., & Vengrober, A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and young children exposed to war-related trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 7, 645-658,
  18. Friedman, A., Howard, J., Shaw, E. K., Cohen, D. J., Shahidi, L., & Ferrante, J. M. (2016). Facilitators and barriers to care coordination in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) from coordinators’ perspectives. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 29, 1, 90-101,
  19. Hammarberg, T. (1990). The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child-and how to make it work. Hein Online, 12, 97.
  20. IOM, UNICEF & UNHCR (2017). Refugee and Migrant Children- Including Unaccompanied and Separated Children in the EU - Overview of Trends in 2016 --(disponibile online: https://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Factsheet_refugee_migrant.pdf).
  21. Kanics, J. & Hernandez, S. D. (2010) Protected or Merely Tolerated? Models of Reception and Regulalization of Unaccompanied and Separated Children in Europe. In J. Kanics, S. D. Hernandez, &K. Touzenis (Eds). Migrating Alone: Unaccompanied and Separated Children’s Migration to Europe. pp. 3-20. Paris: UNESCO.
  22. Keles, S., Friborg, O., Idsøe, T., & Oppedal, B. (2016). Depression among unaccompanied minor refugees: the relative contribution of general and acculturation-specific daily hassles. Journal of Ethinicity and Health, 21, 3, 300-317,, 10.1080/13557858.2015.1065310DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2015.1065310
  23. Knapp, M., McDaid, D., & Personage, M. (Eds.). (2011). Mental health promotion and mental illness prevention: The economic case. London: Department of Health.
  24. McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication II: Associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of general psychiatry, 67, 2, 124-132,
  25. Mels, C., Derluyn, I., Broekaert, E., & Rosseel, Y. (2009). Screening for traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents in the war-affected eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 163, 6, 525-530,
  26. Michelson, D., & Sclare, I. (2009). Psychological needs, service utilization and provision of care in a specialist mental health clinic for young refugees: A comparative study. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry, 14, 2, 273-296,, 10.1177/1359104508100889DOI: 10.1177/1359104508100889
  27. Murray, K. E., Davidson, G. R., & Schweitzer, R. D. (2010). Review of Refugee Mental Health Interventions Following Resettlement: Best Practices and Recommendations. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 4, 576-585,
  28. Newbigging, K., & Thomas, N. (2011). Good Practice in Social Care for Refugee and Asylum‐seeking Children. Child Abuse Review, 20, 5, 374-390,
  29. Oppedal, B., & Idsoe, T. (2015). The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56, 2, 203-211,
  30. Paxton, G., Smith, N., Win, A. K., Mulholland, N., & Hood, S. (2011). Refugee Status Re-port. A report on how refugee children and young people in Victoria are faring. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development: Victorian Government, 135.
  31. Pinto Wiese, E. B., & Burhorst, I. (2007). The mental health of asylum-seeking and refugee children and adolescents attending a clinic in the Netherlands. Transcultural psychiatry, 44, 4, 596-613,, 10.1177/1363461507083900DOI: 10.1177/1363461507083900
  32. Ramel, B., Täljemark, J., Lindgren, A., & Johansson, B. A. (2015). Overrepresentation of unaccompanied refugee minors in inpatient psychiatric care. SpringerPlus, 4, 131, 2-6,
  33. Sanchez‐Cao, E., Kramer, T., & Hodes, M. (2013). Psychological distress and mental health service contact of unaccompanied asylum‐seeking children. Child: care, health and development, 39, 5, 651-659,
  34. Scott, S., Knapp, M., Henderson, J., & Maughan, B. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. British Medical Journal, 323, 7306,
  35. Severoni, S., Montes, M. S. B., & Koenig, M. J. (2016). Migration at the core of public health. Public Health Aspects of Migration in Europe Newsletter, 9. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
  36. Staudenmeyer, A., Macciomei, E., Del Cid, M., & Patel, S. (2016). Immigrant youth life stressors. In S.G. Patel & D. Reicherter (Eds.) Psychotherapy for Immigrant Youth (pp. 3-24). Springer.
  37. Tan-Torres Edejer, T., Baltussen, R. M. P. M., Adam, T., Hutubessy, R., Acharya, A., Evans, D. B., & Murray, C. J. L. (2003). Making choices in health: WHO Guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
  38. Thommessen, S., Laghi, F., Cerrone, C., Baiocco, R., & Todd, B. K. (2013). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms among unaccompanied refugee and Italian adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 1, 7-10,
  39. UN General Assembly (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1577.
  40. Vervliet, M., Lammertyn, J., Broekaert, E., & Derluyn, I. (2014). Longitudinal follow-up of the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 23, 5, 337-346,
  41. Vervliet, M., Meyer Demott, M. A., Jakobsen, M., Broekaert, E., Heir, T., & Derluyn, I. (2014). The mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors on arrival in the host country. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 55, 1, 33-37,

Vittoria Ardino, Giacomo Di Benedetto, in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 2/2017, pp. 55-79, DOI:10.3280/MAL2017-002004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content