Clicca qui per scaricare

The discretionary treatment of drug addiction in prison
Titolo Rivista: SALUTE E SOCIETÀ 
Autori/Curatori: Alessia Bertolazzi, Maria Letizia Zanier 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2018 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  14 P. 59-72 Dimensione file:  205 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SES2018-001005
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Drug addiction has been subjected to political, legal and medical control, oscillating between phases of criminalization and medicalization. In recent decades, the shift emerging in criminal culture towards rehabilitation rather than repression of drug addicts, and the biomedicalization process applied to addiction seems to outline a consistent control model; however, several critical points can be identified. Through a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, conducted with 15 healthcare professionals involved in the drug treatment of inmates, these critical points have been discussed and basically confirmed. On the one hand, the partial implementation of the rehabilitation model is evident in the organizational difficulties that emerged (scarcity of human resources, limited spaces and lack of sufficient funding), which do not provide a suitable recovery program for all inmates. On the other hand, the medical model seems unable to attenuate stigmatizing attitudes, especially towards several weaker social categories. Finally, biomedicalization remains a general concept, but the treatment process is still oriented towards cognitive-behavioral normalization.


Keywords: Drug addiction; prison; inmates; immigrants; addiction treatment; alternatives to imprisonment.

  1. Fellner J. (2000). Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs. New York: Human Rights Watch.
  2. Aa.Vv. (2014). 5º Libro bianco sulla legge Fini-Giovanardi. Fuoriluogo.it
  3. Austin J., Irwin J. (1995). It’s About Time. America’s Imprisonment Binge. Stamford: Wadsworth.
  4. Barbagli M. (2002). Immigrazione e reati in Italia. Bologna: il Mulino.
  5. Barbagli M. (2008). Immigrazione e sicurezza in Italia. Bologna: il Mulino.
  6. Becker H.S. (1963). Outsiders. Studies in the sociology of deviance. Glencoe: Free Press.
  7. Becker H.S. (1967). History, Culture and Subjective Experience: An Exploration of the Social Bases of Drug-Induced Experiences. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 8: 162-176.
  8. Belenko S., Peugh, J. (2005). Estimating drug treatment needs among state prison inmates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77: 269-281.
  9. Bertolazzi A. (2013). La dipendenza da droghe. In: Cattarinussi B., a cura di, Non posso farne a meno. Aspetti sociali delle dipendenze. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  10. Buchman D.Z., Reiner P. (2009). Stigma and Addiction: Being and Becoming. American Journal of Bioethics, 9(9): 18-19., 10.1080/15265160-90309006DOI: 10.1080/15265160-90309006
  11. Campbell N.D. (2012). Medicalization and Biomedicalization: Does the Diseasing of Addiction Fit the Frame? In: Netherland J., ed., Critical Perspectives on Addiction. Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 14. Bingley, UK: Emerald: 3-25.
  12. Chase D., Hora P.F. (2000). The implications of therapeutic jurisprudence for judicial satisfaction. Court review, 37, 1: 12-20.
  13. Clarke A.E., Shim J., Mamo L., Fosket J., Fishman J. (2010). Biomedicalization: Technoscience, health and illness in the U.S. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  14. Conrad P., Schneider J.W. (1980). Deviance and Medicalization. From Badness to Sickness. St. Louis: Mosby.
  15. Duster T. (1970). The Legislation of Morality. New York: The Free Press.
  16. Elam M. (2014). How the Brain Disease Paradigm Remoralizes Addictive Behaviour. Science as Culture, 24(1): 1-19., 10.1080/09505431.2014.93637DOI: 10.1080/09505431.2014.93637
  17. Foucault M. (1975). Surveiller et punir. Naissance de la prison. Paris: Editions Gallimard (trad. it. Sorvegliare e punire. Nascita della prigione. Torino: Einaudi, 1993).
  18. Garland D. (1990). Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  19. Gossop M. (2007). Living with Drugs. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  20. Gowan T., Whetstone S. (2012). Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strongarm rehab. Punishment & Society, 14(1): 69-93., 10.1177/146247451142468DOI: 10.1177/146247451142468
  21. Hansen H., Roberts S.K. (2012). Two Tiers of Biomedicalization: Methadone, Buprenorphine, and the Racial Politics of Addiction Treatment. In: Netherland J., editor, Critical Perspectives on Addiction. Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 14. Bingley, UK: Emerald: 79-102.
  22. Hoffman J., Froemke S. (2007). Why can’t they just stop? Addiction: New knowledge, new treatments, new hope. New York, NY: Rodale, Inc.
  23. Hsieh H.F., Shannon S.E. (2005). Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9): 1277-88.
  24. Hunt A. (2011). Fractious Rivals? Moral panics and moral regulation. In: Hier S., editor, Moral panic and the politics of anxiety. Abingdon: Routledge.
  25. Hunt G., Milhet M., Bergeron H., eds. (2011). Drugs and Culture: Knowledge, Consumption and Policy. Surrey: Ashgate.
  26. Inciardi J.A., McElrath K. (1998). The American drug scene: an anthology. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub.
  27. Jensen E.L., Gerber J., Mosher C. (2004). Social consequences of the War on Drugs: the legacy of failed policy. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 15(1): 100-121., 10.1177/088740340325531DOI: 10.1177/088740340325531
  28. Jutel A. (2009). Sociology of diagnosis: A preliminary review. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31(2): 278-299.
  29. Kalant H. (2009). What neurobiology cannot tell us about addiction. Addiction, 105(5): 780-789.
  30. Koob G.F., LeMoal M. (1997). Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278: 52-58.
  31. Larkin M., Wood R.T.A., Griffiths M.D. (2006). Towards addiction as relationship. Addiction Research and Theory, 14(3): 207-215., 10.1080/16066-35050015174DOI: 10.1080/16066-35050015174
  32. Latimer J., Morton-Bourgon K., Chretien J. (2006). A meta-analytic examination of drug treatment courts: Do they reduce recidivism? Canada Dept. of Justice, Research & Statistics Division.
  33. Ministero della Giustizia (2016). Statistiche 2016, available at https://www.giustizia.it/giustizia/it/mg_1_14.page.
  34. Phelps M.S. (2011). Rehabilitation in the Punitive Era: The Gap between Rhetoric and Reality in U.S. Prison Programs. Law & Society Review, 45(1): 33-68.
  35. Polizzi D., Draper M.R. (2016). Forensic Psychology Reconsidered: A Critique of Mental Illness and the Courts. New York: Routledge.
  36. Reinarman C. (1994). The social construction of drug scares. In: Adler P.A., Adler P., eds., Constructions of deviance. Belmont: Wadsworth.
  37. Room R. (2005). Stigma, social inequality and alcohol and drug use. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24: 143-155., 10.1080/0959523050010243DOI: 10.1080/0959523050010243
  38. Starnini G. (2009). Il passaggio della sanità penitenziaria al Servizio sanitario nazionale. Autonomie locali e servizi sociali, 1: 3-14., 10.1447/2980DOI: 10.1447/2980
  39. Santoro E. (2004). Carcere e società liberale. Torino: Giappichelli.
  40. Vianello F. (2012). Il carcere. Sociologia del penitenziario. Roma: Carocci.
  41. Vrecko S. (2010). Birth of a brain disease: Science, the state and addiction neuropolitics. History of the Human Sciences, 23(4): 52-67., 10.1177/095-269511037159DOI: 10.1177/095-269511037159
  42. Whetstone S., Gowan T. (2011). Diagnosing the Criminal Addict: Biochemistry in the Service of the State. In: McGann P.J., Hutson D.J., eds., Sociology of Diagnosis. Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12. Bingley, UK: Emerald: 309-330.
  43. White H., Gorman D. (2000). Dynamics of the drug-crime relationship. In: LaFree G., ed. Criminal Justice 2000. The nature of crime: Continuity and change. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice: 151-218.
  44. Wilson D.B., Mitchell O., MacKenzie D.L. (2006). A systematic review of Drug Court effects on recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2: 459-487.
  45. Zanier M.L. (2012). L’accusa penale in prospettiva socio-giuridica. Ruoli, processi decisionali e modalità d’azione del pubblico ministero. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Alessia Bertolazzi, Maria Letizia Zanier, in "SALUTE E SOCIETÀ" 1/2018, pp. 59-72, DOI:10.3280/SES2018-001005

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche