Click here to download

Practices of Solidarity: Direct Social Action, Politicisation and Refugee Solidarity Activism in Italy
Journal Title: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Author/s: Lorenzo Zamponi 
Year:  2017 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  21 Pg. 97-117 FullText PDF:  216 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2017-003005
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


In the context of activism in solidarity with refugees in Italy in the "long summer of migration", the article analyses the relationship between political claim-making and direct social actions, i.e. actions that do not primarily focus upon claiming something or other from the state or other power holders but that instead focus upon directly transforming some specific aspects of society by means of the very action itself. In this case, many different kinds of Dsa were put in place by Italian activists, from the emergency provision of food, clothes and blankets to migrants that have been blocked somewhere to the creation of officially recognised humanitarian corridors. Through the analysis of qualitative interviews to activists involved in solidarity with refugees in Italy between 2015 and 2017, the article identifies four different mechanisms of interaction between Dsa and political claim-making: the capacity of Dsa to provide a hub of shared experiences that fosters politicisation; the expression of political claims through direct social actions; the use of Dsa to produce legitimacy and credibility to be spent in the realm of political claim-making; the obstacles to political elaboration and political action that the engagement in Dsa pose. The analysis shows that direct social actions, far from being isolated and separated from political claim-making, has a dynamic relationship with it and should be investigated as part of the same repertoire of collective action.
Keywords: Direct social action, migration, social movement, politicisation, solidarity

  1. Ambrosini M. (2013). Fighting discrimination and exclusion: Civil society and immigration policies in Italy. Migration Letters, 10, 313.
  2. Ayala L.J. (2000). Trained for democracy: The differing effects of voluntary and involuntary organizations on political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 53: 99-115.
  3. Bassand M., Kaufman V. and Joye D., eds. (2007). Enjeux de La Sociologie Urbaine. Lausanne: Ppur.
  4. Biorcio R. and Vitale T., eds. (2016). Italia civile. Associazionismo, partecipazione e politica. Roma: Donzelli.
  5. Bosi L. and Zamponi L. (2015). Direct Social Actions and Economic Crises: The Relationship between Forms of Action and Socio-Economic Context in Italy. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 8, 2: 367-391;
  6. Buechler S.M. (1990). Women’s movements in the United States: woman suffrage, equal rights, and beyond. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  7. Burnham P. (2001). New Labour and the politics of depoliticisation. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 3: 127-149.
  8. Caponio T. (2005). Policy networks and immigrants’ associations in Italy: the cases of Milan, Bologna and Naples. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31: 931-950.
  9. Cappiali M.T. (2015). Activism and Participation Among People of Migrant Back-ground: Discourses and Practices of Inclusiveness in Four Italian Cities. Montréal: Université de Montréal.
  10. Caruso L., Anzivino, M. and Vitale T. (2016) La sinistra e l'impegno associativo. In: Biorcio, R. and Vitale T., eds., cit.: 140-161.
  11. Castelli Gattinara P. (2018). Europeans, shut the borders! Anti-refugee mobilization in Italy and France. In: della Porta D., ed., cit.
  12. Cefaï D. (2007). Pourquoi se mobilise-t-on?: les théories de l’action collective. Paris: Découverte.
  13. d’Albergo E. and Moini G. (2017). Depoliticizing Public Action by Politicizing Issues, Practices and Actors. The Role of Resilience Thinking in a Program of the Cariplo Foundation. Partecipazione e conflitto, 10: 381-420;
  14. della Porta D., ed. (2018). Solidarity Mobilizations in the “Refugee Crisis”. Contentious Moves. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  15. della Porta D. and Diani M., eds. (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
  16. della Porta D. and Mattoni A., eds. (2014). Spreading Protest: Social Movements in Times of Crisis. Ecpr Press.
  17. Dal Zotto E. (2015). L’emergenza come frame cognitivo e organizzativo nella risposta al fenomeno delle migrazioni forzate. L’Italia e il caso dell’"Emergenza Nord Africa" (Doctoral Thesis). Milano: Università degli Studi di Milano.
  18. D’Alisa G., Forno F. and Maurano S. (2015). Grassroots (economic) activism in times of crisis: mapping the redundancy of collective actions. Partecipazione e conflitto, 8, 328-342;
  19. De Nardis F. and Antonazzo L. (2017). Some Theoretical Insights on Social Movements and Resistance Practices in the Era of De-Politicization of Representative Politics. SocietàMutamentoPolitica, 8: 103-128;, 10.13128/SMP-20852DOI: 10.13128/SMP-20852
  20. Eggert N. and Giugni M. (2015). Migration and Social Movements. In: della Porta D. and Diani M., eds., cit.: 159-172.
  21. Flinders M. and Buller J. (2006). Depoliticisation: Principles, tactics and tools. British Politics, 1, 293-318.
  22. Forno F. and Graziano P.R. (2014). Sustainable community movement organisations. Journal of Consumer Culture, 14, 2: 139-157;
  23. Froio C. and Castelli Gattinara P. (2016). Direct Social Actions in Extreme Right Mobilisations. Ideological, strategic and organisational incentives in the Italian neo-fascist right. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 9: 1040-1066.
  24. Graziano P.R. and Forno F. (2012). Political Consumerism and New Forms of Political Participation The Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale in Italy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 644: 121-133.
  25. Hamann U. and Karakayali S. (2016). Practicing Willkommenskultur: Migration and Solidarity in Germany. Intersections, 2, 4;
  26. Hinger S., Schäfer P. and Pott A. (2016). The Local Production of Asylum. Journal of Refugee Studies, 29: 440-463.
  27. Holloway J. (2010). Crack capitalism. UK: Pluto Press.
  28. Holloway J. (2002). Change the World Without Taking Power: The Meaning of Revolution Today. UK: Pluto Press.
  29. Johnston H. (2013). States and Social Movements, Cambridge: Polity.
  30. Karakayali S. and Kleist J.O. (2015). Volunteers and asylum seekers. Forced Migration Review, 51: 65-67.
  31. Koptyaeva A. (2017). Collective homemaking in transit. Forced Migration Review, 55: 37-38.
  32. Kousis M. (2017). Alternative Forms of Resilience Confronting Hard Economic Times. A South European Perspective. Partecipazione e conflitto, 10: 119-135;
  33. Kousis M. and Paschou M. (2017). Alternative Forms of Resilience. A typology of approaches for the study of Citizen Collective Responses in Hard Economic Times. Partecipazione e conflitto, 10, 136-168;
  34. Lotto M. (2017). Abitare nella crisi : le occupazioni abitative dei migranti. Mondi Migranti, 31, 1: 183-202;, 10.3280/MM2017-001010DOI: 10.3280/MM2017-001010
  35. Marchetti C. (2014). Rifugiati e migranti forzati in Itália: il pendolo tra “emergenza” e “sistema”. Remhu: Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, 22: 53-70;, 10.1590/1980-85852503880004304DOI: 10.1590/1980-85852503880004304
  36. Melucci A. (1989). Nomads of the present: Social movements and individual needs in contemporary society. London: Hutchinson Radius.
  37. Mezzadra S. and Ricciardi M., eds. (2013). Movimenti indisciplinati. Migrazioni, Migranti e Discipline Scientifiche. Verona: Ombre Corte
  38. Milbourne L. (2013). Voluntary sector in transition. Policy Press.
  39. Monforte P. (2016). The border as a space of contention: the spatial strategies of protest against border controls in Europe. Citizenship Studies, 20: 411-426;, 10.1080/13621025.2015.1075471DOI: 10.1080/13621025.2015.1075471
  40. Moulaert F. and Ailenei O. (2005). Social economy, third sector and solidarity relations: A conceptual synthesis from history to present. Urban studies, 42: 2037-2053.
  41. Oliveri F. (2012). Migrants as activist citizens in Italy: understanding the new cycle of struggles. Citizenship studies, 16: 793-806.
  42. Pattaroni L. (2007). La ville plurielle. Quand les squatters ébranlent l’ordre urbain, in: Bassand M., Kaufman V. and Joye D., eds., cit: 283-298.
  43. Pilati K. (2010). La partecipazione politica degli immigrati: il caso di Milano. Roma: Armando.
  44. Pinelli B. (2016). Forme del controllo. I centri per richiedenti asilo in Italia. Centro Studi Fossoli; http://www.centrostudifossoli.org/PDF1/INTERVENTO_PINELLI.pdf.
  45. Staggenborg S. (1998). Social Movement Communities and Cycles of Protest: The Emergence and Maintenance of a Local Women’s Movement. Social Problems, 45: 180-204;, 10.2307/3097243DOI: 10.2307/3097243
  46. Staggenborg S. and Taylor V. (2005). Whatever happened to the women’s movement? Mobilization. An International Quarterly, 10, 1: 37-52.
  47. Stolle D., Hooghe M., Micheletti M. (2005). Politics in the supermarket: Political consumerism as a form of political participation. International Political Science Review, 26: 245-269.
  48. Stolle D., Micheletti M. (2015). Political consumerism: Global responsibility in action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  49. Strømsnes K. (2009). Political consumerism: a substitute for or supplement to conventional political participation? Journal of Civil Society, 5: 303-314.
  50. Taylor V. (2000). Emotions and identity in women’s self-help movements. Self, identity, and social movements, 13: 271-299.
  51. Teixidó Gràcia G. (2017). Solidaritat directa com a eina de transformació social: el cas d’Exarcheia (Grau de Sociologia). Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.
  52. Tilly C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. Mcgraw-Hill College.
  53. van de Sande M. (2013). The Prefigurative Politics of Tahrir Square – An Alternative Perspective on the 2011 Revolutions. Res Publica, 19: 223-239;
  54. Van der Meer T.T. and Van Ingen E.E. (2009). Schools of democracy? Disentangling the relationship between civic participation and political action in 17 European countries. European Journal of Political Research, 48: 281-308.
  55. Vicari Haddock S. and Moulaert F., eds. (2009). Rigenerare La Città. Pratiche Di Innovazione Sociale Nelle Città Europee. Bologna: il Mulino.
  56. Vitale T. (2009). Discorso pubblico e legittimazione dell’innovazione sociale. In: Vicari Haddock S. and Moulaert F., eds., cit.: 132-162.
  57. Walters W. (2006). No Border: Games With(out) Frontiers. Social Justice, 33, 21-39.
  58. Ward J., de Vreese C. (2011). Political consumerism, young citizens and the Inter-net. Media, Culture & Society, 33, 399-413.
  59. Zamponi L. (2018). From Border to Border: Refugee Solidarity Activism in Italy across Space, Time, and Practices. In: della Porta, D., ed., cit.
  60. Zamponi L. and Daphi P. (2014). Breaks and continuities in and between cycles of protest. Memories and legacies of the global justice movement in the context of anti-austerity mobilisations. In: della Porta D. and Mattoni A., eds., cit.: 193-225.

Lorenzo Zamponi, in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 3/2017, pp. 97-117, DOI:10.3280/MM2017-003005

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content