Clicca qui per scaricare

Care across the globe: the impact of national culture and structure
Autori/Curatori: Ariane Ollier-Malaterre 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  14 P. 9-22 Dimensione file:  110 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SP2017-003002
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

This article examines the impact of national context, i.e., cultural beliefs shared in a country and structural factors such as public policies, on individuals’ family care decisions, such as the number of children in the family or the time spent with them. I argue that although family care decisions are intimate, they are not private, because they are bounded by what individuals perceive to be possible in their family, workplace, and country contexts. I analyze two interrelated dynamics. First, national culture influences the relative valuation of care compared with paid work, via work devotion schemas built upon a gendered distinction between the public sphere of work and the private sphere of care. Second, culture and structure foster gendered expectations regarding who is expected to engage in care, and the devaluation of care is intimately connected to this gendered division of labor. Altogether, culture and structure contribute to the social construction of care in a country, in which individuals work-family decisions are deeply embedded.

Keywords: Care; Culture; Structure; Work-Family; National Context.

  1. Arts, W., and Gelissen, J. 2002. Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the-art report. Journal of European Social Policy, 12(2), pp. 137–158.
  2. Aryee, S. 2005. The work-family interface in urban Sub-Saharan Africa: A theoretical analysis. In S. Poelmans (Ed.), Work and family: An international research perspective. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  3. Bailyn, L. 1992. Issues of work and family in different national contexts: How the United States, Britain, and Sweden Respond. Human Resource Management, 31(3), pp. 201-208.
  4. Bambra, C. 2007. "Sifting the Wheat from the Chaff": A Two-dimensional Discriminant Analysis of Welfare State Regime Theory. Social Policy and Administration, 41(1), pp. 1-28.
  5. Barrere-Maurisson, M. A. 1992. La division familiale du travail. La vie en double: Puf, Collection 'Economie en Liberte'.
  6. Barrere-Maurisson, M. A., Rivier, S., and Minni, C. 2001. Le partage des temps pour les hommes et les femmes : ou comment conjuguer travail remunere, non remunere et non-travail. Premieres informations et premieres syntheses, DARES.
  7. Bergqvist, C., and Njberg, A. 2013. Welfare State Restructuring and Child Care inSweden. Child care policy at the crossroads: Gender and welfare state restructuring, pp. 287-307.
  8. Blair-Loy, M. 2003. Competing devotions: Career and family among women executives. MA: Harvard University Press.
  9. Bonoli, G. 1997. Classifying welfare states: A two-dimension approach. Journal of Social Policy, 26(3), pp. 351-372.
  10. Crompton, R., and Lyonette, C. 2006. Work-life 'balance' in Europe. Acta Sociologica, 49(4), pp. 379-393.
  11. Daly, M., and Rake, K. 2003. Gender and the welfare state : Care, work and welfare in Europe and the USA. Cambridge, Royaume-Uni: Polity Press.
  12. Dumas, T. L., and Sanchez-Burks, J. 2015. The Professional, the Personal, and the Ideal Worker: Pressures and Objectives Shaping the Boundary between Life Domains. The Academy of Management Annals, 9(1), pp. 803-843.
  13. Esping-Andersen, G. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism: Cambridge: Polity Press.
  14. Esping-Andersen, G. 1999. Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  15. Ferrara, M. 1996. The ‘Southern Model’ of Welfare in Social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 7(1), pp. 17-37.
  16. Fraser, N. 1985. What's critical about critical theory? The case of Habermas and gender. New German Critique(35), pp. 97-131.
  17. Greenhaus, J. H., and Beutell, N. 1985. Sources of Conflict between Work and Family Roles. Academy of Management Review, 10(1), pp. 76-88.
  18. Greenhaus, J. H., and Powell, G. N. 2017. Making work and family work: From hard choices to smart choices, women and men in management. New York: Routledge.
  19. Hailu Gudeta, K., and Van Engen, M. L. 2014. Work-Life Boundary Management of Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia: Hired Helps, Necessity or Burden?, Work and Family Researchers Network. Washington.
  20. Hartmann, H. I. 1979. The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: Towards a more progressive union. Capital and Class, 3(2), pp. 1-33.
  21. Henly, J. R., and Lambert, S. J. 2014. Unpredictable work timing in retail jobs implications for employee work–life conflict. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 67(3), pp. 986-1016.
  22. Hobson, B. 2013. Worklife Balance: The Agency and Capabilities Gap. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  23. Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
  24. House, R. J., Hanges, P., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., and Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  25. Imray, L., and Middleton, A. 1983. Public and private: Marking the boundaries. In E. Gamarnikow, D. Morgan, J. Purvis, and D. Taylorson (Eds.), The public and the private, pp. 12-27. London: Heinemann.
  26. Inglehart, R. 1997. Modernization and Post-Modernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  27. Inglehart, R., and Welzel, C. 2010. Changing mass priorities: The link between modernization and democracy. Perspectives on Politics, 8, pp. 551-567.
  28. Jaga, A. 2014. Antecedents of work-family conflict among Hindu working women in South Africa: Stressors, social support and cultural values. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
  29. Javidan, M., House, R. J., Dorfman, P. W., Hanges, P. J., and De Luque, M. S. 2006. Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE's and Hofstede's approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), pp. 897-914.
  30. Kamerman, S. B., and Kahn, A. J. 1981. Child care, family benefits, and working parents. New York: Columbia University Press.
  31. Kossek, E. E., Su, R., and Wu, L. 2016. “Opting Out” or “Pushed Out”? Integrating perspectives on women’s career equality for gender inclusion and interventions. Journal of Management, 43(1), pp. 228-254.
  32. Lambert, S. J., and Henly, J. R. 2009. Work schedules in hourly jobs. In The lowwage labor market for the twenty-first century economy. Washington DC: The Mobility Agenda.
  33. Lamont, M. 1995. National identity and national boundary patterns in France and the United States. French Historical Studies, 19(2), pp. 349-365.
  34. Leibfried, S. 1992. Towards a European welfare state. In Z. Ferge, and J. E. Kolberg (Eds.), Social Policy in a Changing Europe, pp.245-279. Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag.
  35. Léon, M. 2005. Welfare State regimes and the social organization of labour: Childcare arrangements and the work/family balance dilemma. Sociological Review, 53(2), pp. 204-218.
  36. Letablier, M.-T., and Jönsson, I. 2005. Caring for children: The logics of public action. In U. Gerhart, T. Knijn, and A. Weckwert (Eds.), Working mothers in Europe, a comparison of policies and practices. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  37. Lewis, J. 2001. Women, Men and the Family? In A. Seldon (Ed.), The Blair Effect. The Blair Government 1997-2001: Little Brown.
  38. Lewis, J. 2009. Work-family balance, gender and policy. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  39. Lewis, S., and Smithson, J. 2001. Sense of entitlement to support for the reconciliation of employment and family life. Human Relations, 55, pp. 1455-1481.
  40. Lu, L., Gilmour, R., Kao, S. F., and Huang, M. T. 2006. A cross-cultural study of work/family demands, work/family conflict and wellbeing: The Taiwanese vs. British. Career Development International, 11, pp. 9-27.
  41. Marx, K. 1976. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. London: Penguin Classics.
  42. Mitchell, J. 1966. Women: The longest revolution. New Left Review, 40(11), pp. 11-37.
  43. Moore, S. 2017. It's not a perk when big employers offer egg-freezing – it's a bogus bribe. The Guardian.
  44. Ollier-Malaterre, A. 2007. Gérer le hors-travail ? Pertinence et efficacité des pratiques d'harmonisation travail-hors-travail, aux Etats-Unis, au Royaume-Uni et en France, pp. 1-656. Paris: CNAM University, France.
  45. — 2009. Organizational Work-Life Initiatives: Context matters. France Compared to the UK and the U.S. Community, Work and Family, 12(2), pp. 159-178.
  46. — 2015. Cross-national work-life research: A review at the individual level. In T. D. Allen, and L. E. Eby (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Work and Family, pp. 315-332. New York: Oxford University Press.
  47. — 2017. Cross-national work–life research: common misconceptions and pervasive challenges. Community, Work and Family, 20(1), pp. 92-98.
  48. Ollier-Malaterre, A., and Foucreault, A. 2017. Cross-national work-life research: Cultural and structural impacts for individuals and organizations. Journal of Management, 43(1), pp. 111-136.
  49. — In press. GLOBE’s Cultural Dimensions: Implications for Global Work Family Research. In K. Shockley, W. Shen, and R. Johnson (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work-Family Interface: Cambridge
  50. Parboteeah, K. P., and Cullen, J. B. 2003. Social institutions and work centrality: Explorations beyond national culture. Organization Science, 14(2), pp. 137-148.
  51. Perlow, L. A. 1999. The time famine: Toward a sociology of work time. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1), pp. 57-83.
  52. Pfau‐Effinger, B. 1998. Gender cultures and the gender arrangement—A theoretical framework for cross‐national gender research. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 11(2), pp. 147-166.
  53. Powell, G. N., Francesco, A. M., and Ling, Y. 2009. Towards culture-sensitive theories of the work-family interface. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, pp. 597-616.
  54. Radcliffe, L. S., and Cassell, C. 2014. Resolving couples’ work–family conflicts: The complexity of decision making and the introduction of a new framework. Human Relations, 67(7), pp. 793–819.
  55. Reid, E. 2015. Embracing, passing, revealing, and the ideal worker image: How people navigate expected and experienced professional identities. Organization Science, 26(4), pp. 997-1017.
  56. Schooler, C. 1996. Cultural and social-structural explanations of cross-national psychological differences. Annual Review of Sociology, pp. 323-349.
  57. Schor, J. B. 1991. The overworked American: The unexpected decline of leisure. New York: Basic Books.
  58. Schwartz, S. H. 1992. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25(1), pp. 1-65.
  59. Scruggs, L. A., and Allan, J. P. 2008. Social Stratification and Welfare Regimes for the Twenty-first Century. Revisiting The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. World Politics, 60, pp. 642–664.
  60. Silver, C. B. 2007. Womb envy: Loss and grief of the maternal body. The Psychoanalytic Review, 94(3), pp. 409-430.
  61. Slaughter, A. M. 2015. Unfinished Business: Women Men Work Family. New York: Random House.
  62. Snir, R., and Harpaz, I. 2009. Cross-cultural differences concerning heavy work investment. Cross-Cultural Research, 43, pp. 309-319.
  63. Somech, A., Drach-Zahavy, A., Aycan, Z., Korabik, K., Ayman, R., Bardoel, A., Poelmans, S. A. Y., Rajadhyaksha, U., Mawardi, A., Huang, T.-P., Lero, D. S., Desai, T. P., Hammer, L., and Li, Z. 2013. Understanding the role of personal strategy in decreasing work and family conflict: A crosscultural perspective. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference of Work and Family, IESE Business School, Barcelona.
  64. Steiber, N. 2009. Reported levels of time-based and strain-based conflict between work and family roles in Europe: A multilevel approach. Social Indicators Research, 93(3), pp. 469-488.
  65. Strandh, M., and Nordenmark, M. 2006. The interference of paid work with household demands in different social policy contexts: Perceived work–household conflict in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. British Journal of Sociology, 57(4), pp. 597-617.
  66. Swanberg, J. E., McKechnie, S. P., Ojha, M. U., and James, J. B. 2011. Schedule control, supervisor support and work engagement: A winning combination for workers in hourly jobs? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(3), pp. 613-624.
  67. Tronto, J. C. 1993. Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. New York: Routledge.
  68. Uhlmann, E. L., Heaphy, E., Ashford, S. J., Zhu, L., and Sanchez-Burks, J. 2013.
  69. Acting professional: An exploration of culturally bounded norms against nonwork role referencing. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(6), pp. 866-886.
  70. Uhlmann, E. L., and Sanchez-Burks, J. 2014. The implicit legacy of American Protestantism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(6), pp. 992–1006.
  71. Williams, J. C., Blair‐Loy, M., and Berdahl, J. L. 2013. Cultural schemas, social class, and the flexibility stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), pp. 209-234.
  72. Zaretsky, E. 1986. Capitalism, the family, and personal life. New York: Harper and Row.

  1. Marcello Russo, Ariane Ollier-Malaterre, Ellen Ernst Kossek, Marc Ohana, Boundary Management Permeability and Relationship Satisfaction in Dual-Earner Couples: The Asymmetrical Gender Effect in Frontiers in Psychology 1723/2018 pp. , DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01723
  2. Elena Macchioni, Riccardo Prandini, Work–Life Balance Measures of Working Carers and Well-Being Satisfaction within Couple Relationships: The Result of an Italian Policy Looking through the Gender Lens in Social Sciences /2019 pp. 109, DOI: 10.3390/socsci8040109

Ariane Ollier-Malaterre, in "SOCIOLOGIA E POLITICHE SOCIALI" 3/2017, pp. 9-22, DOI:10.3280/SP2017-003002


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche