Click here to download

Psychometric properties of the Centrality of Event Scale in Italian adolescents
Author/s: Chiara Ionio, Eleonora Mascheroni, Paola Di Blasio 
Year:  2018 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  13 Pg. 67-79 FullText PDF:  241 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2018-001005
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Stressful and traumatic experiences may become turning points that organize past, present and future experiences and autobiographical memories. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES) measures the extent to which the memory of a highly stressful and traumatic event is central in a person’s life. The present work aimed to translate, adapt and validate the CES in the Italian context, evaluating the psychometric proprieties using a sample of 872 Italian adolescents (60.2% male) aged between 11 and 21 years (M = 16.60, SD = 1.67). The Italian version was proved to be a valid measure for adolescents’ sample in the Italian context. Moreover, significant correlation with the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) symptomatology tested by the Impact of Event Scale Revised was found. Our find-ings provided evidence on the validity of the scale for use with adolescent samples, which may contribute for a better understanding of the impact that significant life events may have on them during an important period of their life.
Keywords: Centrality of Event Scale, stress, trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, adolescence

  1. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  2. Berger, C., & Caravita, S. C. S. (2016). Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully. Journal of Adolescence, 46, 45-56,
  3. Camodeca, M., Caravita, S. C. S., & Coppola, G. (2015). Bullying in preschool: The associations between participant roles, social competence, and social preference. Aggressive Behavior, 41, 4, 210-221,
  4. Caravita, S. C. S., Donghi, E., Banfi, A., & Meneghini, F. (2016). Essere immigrati come fattore di rischio per la vittimizzazione nel bullismo: uno studio italiano su caratteristiche individuali e processi di gruppo. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 18, 59-87,, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2016-001004
  5. Caravita, S. C. S., & Gini, G. (2010). L’(Im) moralità del bullismo. Milano: Unicopli.
  6. Caravita, S. C. S., Pöyhönen, V., Rajala, I., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). The architecture of high status among Finnish youth. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 668-679,
  7. Caravita, S. C., Colombo, B., Stefanelli, S., & Zigliani, R. (2016). Emotional, psychological and behavioral responses elicited by the exposition to cyberbullying situations: Two experimental studies. Psicología Educativa, 22, 1, 49-59,
  8. Fredstrom, B. K. (2011). Electronic and school-based victimization: Unique con-texts for adjustment difficulties during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 4, 405-415,
  9. Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., & Guarini, A. (2013). Cyberbullismo: Ricerche e strategie di intervento. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  10. Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyber-bullying. Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Journal of Psychology, 217, 205-213,, DOI: 10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.205
  11. Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., & Hymel, S. (2014). Moral disengagement among children and youth: A meta‐analytic review of links to aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 1, 56-68,
  12. Hawley, P. H. (2003). Prosocial and coercive configurations of resource control in early adolescence: A case for the well-adapted machiavellian. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 279-309.
  13. Hymel, S., Closson, L. M., Caravita, S. C. S., & Vaillancourt, T. (2010). Social status among peers: From sociometric attraction to peer acceptance to perceived popularity. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Handbook of childhood social development: 2nd Edition (pp. 375-392). Malden, MA: Wiley/Blackwell.
  14. Høst, K., Brugman, D., Tavecchio, L., & Beem, L. (1998). Students’ perception of the moral atmosphere in secondary school and the relationship between moral competence and moral atmosphere. Journal of Moral Education, 27, 1, 47-70,, DOI: 10.1080/0305724980270104
  15. Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Halth, 41, 6, 22-30,
  16. Leoni, M., & Caravita, S. C. S. (2014). Vittimizzazione in situazioni di bullismo e colpevolizzazione della vittima in rapporto a dimensioni di contesto: uno studio in due città. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 16, 1, 77-100,, DOI: 10.3280/MAL2014-001005
  17. Macháčková, H., Dedkova, L., Sevcikova, A., & Cerna, A. (2013). Bystanders’ support of cyberbullied schoolmates. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 25-36,
  18. Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Friesen, A., Friesen, S., Ortega, R., Calmaestra, J., et al. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: A comparison across six European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 15, 9, 455-463,
  19. Mitchell, K. J., Jones, L. M., & Turner, H. A. (2017). Past year technology-involved peer harassment victimization and recent depressive symptoms and suicide ideation among a national sample of youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 1-15,, DOI: 10.1177/0886260517748413
  20. Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
  21. Olweus, D. (1996). Bullismo a scuola. Ragazzi oppressi, ragazzi che opprimono. Firenze: Giunti.
  22. Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Florence cyberbullying-cybervictimization scales. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 2, 112-119,
  23. Parkhurst, J. T., & Hopmeyer, A. (1998). Sociometric popularity and peer-perceived popularity two distinct dimensions of peer status. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18, 2, 125-144,, DOI: 10.1177/0272431698018002001
  24. Pornari, C. D., & Wood, J. (2010). Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and out-come expectancies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 2, 81-94,
  25. Renati, R., Berrone, C., & Zanetti, M., A. (2012). morally disengaged and unempathic: Do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 391-398,
  26. Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1-15,
  27. Slonje, R., Smith, P. K., & Frisén, A. (2012). Processes of cyberbullying, and feelings of remorse by bullies: A pilot study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 2, 244-259,, DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.643670
  28. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 4, 376-385,
  29. Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. Cyberpsychology & behavior,7, 3, 321-326,, DOI: 10.1089/1094931041291295
  30. Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. CyberPsychology & Behav-ior,11, 4, 499-503,
  31. Whittaker, E., & Kowalski, R. M. (2015). Cyberbullying Via Social Media. Journal of School Violence,14, 1, 11-29,, DOI: 10.1080/15388220.2014.949377
  32. Zanetti, M. A., & Colangelo (2018, in press). Educare per prevenire la sofferenza delle cybervittime. Ricadute educative a partire dalla legge 71/2017. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 20, 1, 11-30.
  33. Wright, M. F., & Li, Y. (2011). The associations between young adults’ face-to-face prosocial behaviors and their online prosocial behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1959-1962,

Chiara Ionio, Eleonora Mascheroni, Paola Di Blasio, in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 1/2018, pp. 67-79, DOI:10.3280/MAL2018-001005


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content