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La complessità in immunologia, dalla molecola al gregge
Titolo Rivista: PNEI REVIEW 
Autori/Curatori: Paolo Bellavite 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2018 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  23 P. 18-40 Dimensione file:  1229 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PNEI2018-001003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Per quanto la complessità del sistema immunitario sia fuori discussione, le applicazioni pratiche della vaccinologia sono spesso improntate a strategie semplicistiche e basate su un pensiero "lineare". In questo lavoro sono evidenziati i meccanismi di base delle difese dalle infezioni, con un particolare approfondimento sui meccanismi molecolari di riconoscimento degli antigeni del virus dell’influenza. Identificando alcuni tipi di anticorpi contro l’emoagglutinina si è iniziato a comprendere anche le basi molecolari dell’autoimmunità verso tali antigeni. L’autoimmunità, in generale, può essere indotta dalle infezioni in particolari soggetti predisposti, ma può essere una rara conseguenza anche della vaccinazione, per l’interazione tra antigeni specifici, adiuvanti aspecifici, macrofagi e sistema immunitario. La complessità in vaccinologia deriva da molti fattori, legati all’intervento vaccinale vero e proprio (efficacia del vaccino, coperture, effetto gregge) oppure emergenti dallo stesso uso dei vaccini su larga scala (comparsa di ceppi resistenti, vaccinati portatori, spostamento dell’insorgenza di malattie ad età adulte, preoccupazioni per eventi avversi). Identificare i punti critici che ancora ostacolano un unanime giudizio sui vari vaccini è la premessa per promuovere un loro uso più efficace ed indirizzare la ricerca verso obiettivi utili a tal fine.


Keywords: Sistemi complessi, Difese biologiche, Influenza, Autoimmunità, Adiuvanti, Vaccinazioni.

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Paolo Bellavite, in "PNEI REVIEW" 1/2018, pp. 18-40, DOI:10.3280/PNEI2018-001003

   

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