The social and employment integration of Tunisian and Romanian migrants in an intensive farming area of eastern Sicily has some peculiarities compared to the traditional "Mediterranean model" which is based on the structural link between the seasonality of activities and the mobility of migrants. The greenhouse cultivation loosens the functional imperative of mobility and increases the opportunities for continuity and regularity of the employment relationship for the migrants, but shifts the size of penalization on the side of the flexibility of the wage, the working time and the rate of production to different extents depending on the profiles and strategies of firms and workers. On the other hand, the civic stratification of migratory flows neither produced a generalized process of replacement of the Tunisian workers with the Romanian ones, nor guaranteed the newcomers better working and living conditions but, instead, contributed to institutionalize a mobile system of rules that regulate the labor market and reproduce inequalities between different groups of migrants. In particular, women, who experience a difficult balance between emancipation and well-being, suffer a more severe penalization, which extends to the experience of motherhood and the relationship with their children, but their role remains central to family strategies aimed at maximizing income and quality of life through an adaptation of the cultures and family models of the countries of origin to the constraints and resources of the host societies.
Keywords: Tunisian immigrants, Romanian immigrants, ethnic penalty, civic stratification, gender inequality, maternity.