Clicca qui per scaricare

Maschilità: identificazioni, ruoli e soggetti
Titolo Rivista: PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE 
Autori/Curatori: Adriano Zamperini, David Primo, Ines Testoni 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2018 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  28 P. 399-426 Dimensione file:  207 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PU2018-003004
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Nelle ultime decadi, lo studio del maschile è entrato a far parte delle scienze sociali come un tema di ricerca centrale. In particolare, i Critical Studies on Men & Masculinities (CSMM) offrono una proficua direzione per studiare sia il ruolo della maschilità nel sostenere le asimmetrie di potere nelle relazioni di genere, sia l’eterogeneità dei modi in cui i soggetti arrivano a definirsi come uomini. Ciononostante, restano delle rilevanti aporie teoriche aperte al dibattito. Questo articolo perseguirà due scopi: tracciare gli snodi centrali dei dibattiti sulle maschilità e valutare il contributo che un dialogo tra i CSMM e il linguaggio psicoanalitico può portare allo studio delle soggettività maschili. Verrà avanzata l’ipotesi che un punto di contatto promettente per questo dialogo può essere ritrovato nella riformulazione post-strutturalista che Judith Butler ha proposto delle opere di Freud e Lacan sullo sviluppo dell’identità di genere.


Keywords: Studi critici sugli uomini e sulle maschilità; Teoria della maschilità egemone; Judith Butler; Teorie sulla soggettivazione/assoggettamento; Identità di genere

  1. Irigaray L. (1974). Speculum. De l’autre femme. Paris: Minuit (trad. it.: Speculum: l’altra donna. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1975).
  2. Kimmel M. S. (1997). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame and silence in the construction of gender identity. In: Gergen M.M. & Davis S.N., editors, Toward a New Psychology of Gender. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge, 1997, pp. 223-242.
  3. Kristeva J. (1980). Pouvoirs de l’horreur. Essai sur l’abjection. Paris: Seuil (trad. it.: Poteri dell’orrore: saggio sull’abiezione. Milano: Spirali, 1981).
  4. Lloyd M. (2007). Judith Butler. From Norms to Politics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  5. Masling J., Bornstein R.F., Fishman I. & Davila J. (2002). Can Freud explain women as well as men? A meta-analytic review of gender differences in psychoanalytic research. Psychoana-lytic Psychology, 19, 2: 328-347., 10.1037/0736-9735.19.2.328DOI: 10.1037/0736-9735.19.2.328
  6. Maynard M. (1990). The reshaping of sociology? Trends in the study of gender. Sociology, 24, 2: 269-290., 10.1177/0038038590024002007DOI: 10.1177/0038038590024002007
  7. Aboim S. (2010). Plural Masculinities: The Remaking of the Self in Private Life. Surrey, UK: Ashgate.
  8. McCormack M. & Anderson E. (2014). Homohysteria: Definitions, context and intersectionality. Sex Roles, 79, 3: 152-158.
  9. McNey L. (1999). Subject, psyche and agency. The work of Judith Butler. Theory, Culture & Society, 16, 2: 175-193., 10.1177/02632769922050467DOI: 10.1177/02632769922050467
  10. McWilliams N. (1994). Psychoanalytic Diagnosis. Understanding Personality Structure in the Clinical Process. New York: Guilford (Second Edition: 2011) (trad. it.: La diagnosi psicoanalitica: struttura della personalità e processo clinico. Roma: Astrolabio, 1999; Seconda edizione: 2012).
  11. Meloni M. (2009). Una impossibile intimità: Gramsci, Freud, la Psicoanalisi. Sassari: EDES.
  12. Messerschmidt J.W. (2012). Engendering gendered knowledge: Assessing the academic appro-priation of hegemonic masculinity. Men & Masculinities, 15, 1: 56-76., 10.1177/1097184X11428384DOI: 10.1177/1097184X11428384
  13. Messner M.A. (1991). Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
  14. Messner M.A. (1998). The limits of “the Male Sex Role”. An analysis of the Men’s Liberation and Men’s Rights Movements’ discourse. Gender & Society, 12, 3: 255-276., 10.1177/0891243298012003002DOI: 10.1177/0891243298012003002
  15. Mitchell J. (1974). Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Reich, Laing and Woman. New York: Pantheon (trad. it.: Psicoanalisi e femminismo: Freud, Reich, Laing e altri punti di vista sulla donna. Torino: Einaudi, 1976).
  16. Abraham N. & Torok M. (1972). Deuil ou mélancolie. Introjecter-incorporer. Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse, 6: 111-122. Anche in: L’écorce et le noyau [1959-75]. Paris: Flammarion, 1978, pp. 259-275 (trad. it.: Lutto o melanconia. Introiettare-incorporare. In: La scorza e il nocciolo. Roma: Borla, 1993, pp. 252-268; trad. inglese: Mourning or melancholia: Intro-jection versus incorporation. In: The Shell and the Kernel: Renewals of Psychoanalysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1994, pp. 125-138).
  17. Adams A. (2011). “Josh wears pink cleats”: Inclusive masculinity on the soccer field. Journal of Homosexuality, 58, 5: 579-596., 10.1080/00918369.2011.563654DOI: 10.1080/00918369.2011.563654
  18. Anderson E. (2005). Orthodox and inclusive masculinity: Competing masculinities among het-erosexual men in a feminized terrain. Sociological Perspectives, 48, 3: 337-355.
  19. Negy C. (2014). Homohysteria: Useful construct? Or an unnecessary splitting of hairs? Sex Roles, 71, 3-4: 137-140.
  20. Anderson E. (2008). “Being masculine is not about who you sleep with...”: Heterosexual athletes contesting masculinity and the one-time rule of homosexuality. Sex Roles, 58, 1/2: 104-115.
  21. Parsons T. & Bales R.F. (1955). Family, Socialization and Interaction Process. Glencoe, IL: Free Press (trad. it.: Famiglia e socializzazione. Milano: Mondadori, 1974).
  22. Anderson E. (2010). Inclusive Masculinity: The Changing Nature of Masculinities. New York: Routledge.
  23. Peters M.A. & Appel S. (1996). Positioning theory: Discourse, the subject and the problem of desire. Social Analysis, 40 (September): 120-145.
  24. Peterson K.W. (2015). Promise Keepers. In: Chapman R. & Ciment J., editors, Culture Wars in America. An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge, 2015, pp. 524-525.
  25. Pleck J. (1984). The theory of male sex role identity: Its rise and fall, 1936 to the present. In: Miriam L., editor, In the Shadow of the Past: Psychology Portrays the Sexes. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984, pp. 205-225.
  26. Sayers J. (1987). Freud revisited: On gender, moral development and androgyny. New Ideas in Psychology, 5, 2: 197-206., 10.1016/0732-118X(87)90015-8DOI: 10.1016/0732-118X(87)90015-8
  27. Terman L.M. & Miles C.C. (1936). Sex and Personality. Studies in Masculinity and Femininity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  28. Tosh J. (1994). What should historians do with masculinity? Reflections on nineteenth-century Britain. History Workshop Journal, 38, 1: 179-202.
  29. Traister B. (2000). Academic Viagra: The rise of American masculinity studies. American Quarterly, 52, 2: 274-304.
  30. Walker Mechling E. & Mechling J. (1994). The Jung and the restless: The mythopoetic men’s movement. Southern Communication Journal, 59, 2: 97-111., 10.1080/10417949409372929DOI: 10.1080/10417949409372929
  31. Wedgwood N. (2009). Connell’s theory of masculinity – Its origins and influences on the study of gender. Journal of Gender Studies, 18, 4: 329-339., 10.1080/09589230903260001DOI: 10.1080/09589230903260001
  32. Wetherell M. & Edley N. (1999). Negotiating hegemonic masculinity: Imaginary positions and psycho-discursive practices. Feminism & Psychology, 9, 3: 335-356., 10.1177/0959353599009003012.DOI: 10.1177/0959353599009003012.
  33. Wetherell M. & Edley N. (2015). A discursive psychological framework for analyzing men and masculinities. Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 15, 4: 355-364.
  34. Whitehead S. (2001). The invisible gendered subject: Men in education management. Journal of Gender Studies, 10, 1: 67-82., 10.1080/095892301300050591DOI: 10.1080/095892301300050591
  35. Whitehead S. (2002). Men and Masculinities. Key Themes and New Directions. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  36. Zamperini A., Testoni I., Primo D., Prandelli M. & Monti C. (2016). Because moms say so: Narratives of lesbian mothers in Italy. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 12, 1: 91-110,, 10.1080/1550428X.2015.1102669DOI: 10.1080/1550428X.2015.1102669
  37. Anderson E. & McCormack M. (2018). Inclusive Masculinity Theory: Overview, reflection and refinement. Journal of Gender Studies, 27, 5: 547-561., 10.1080/09589236.2016.1245605DOI: 10.1080/09589236.2016.1245605
  38. Anderson E. & McGuire R. (2010). Inclusive masculinity theory and the gendered politics of men’s rugby. Journal of Gender Studies, 19, 3: 249-261., 10.1080/09589236.2010.494341DOI: 10.1080/09589236.2010.494341
  39. Alsop R., Fitzsimons A. & Lennon K. (2002). Theorizing Gender. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  40. Beasley C. (2005). Gender and Sexuality: Critical Theories, Critical Thinkers. London: Sage.
  41. Beasley C. (2010). The elephant in the room: Heterosexuality in critical gender/sexuality studies. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 18, 3: 204-209., 10.1080/08038740.2010.499100DOI: 10.1080/08038740.2010.499100
  42. Bly R. (1990). Iron John: A Book about Men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  43. Bonnett A. (1996). The new primitives: Identity, landscape and cultural appropriation in the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement. Antipode, 28, 3: 273-291.
  44. Braidotti R. (2002). Metamorphoses: Towards a Materialist Theory of Becoming. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  45. Bunnin N. & Yu J. (2004). Masculinism. In: Bunnin N. & Ciment J., editors, The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 411.
  46. Burkhalter T. (2016). Foregrounding masculinities in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psycho-analytic Dialogues, 26, 3: 339-351., 10.1080/10481885.2016.1169042DOI: 10.1080/10481885.2016.1169042
  47. Butler J. (1990a). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
  48. Butler J. (1990b). Gender trouble, feminist theory and psychoanalytic discourse. In: Nicholson L., editor, Feminism and Postmodernism. London: Routledge, 1990, pp. 324-351.
  49. Butler J. (1995). Melancholy gender-refused identification. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 5, 2: 165-180., 10.1080/10481889509539059DOI: 10.1080/10481889509539059
  50. Butler J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  51. Butler J. (2004). Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. New York: Verso.
  52. Butler J. & Athanasiou A. (2013). Dispossession: The Performative in the Political. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  53. Cahill C. (2015). Men’s movement. In: Chapman R. & Ciment J., editors, Culture Wars in America. An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge, 2015, pp. 419-421.
  54. Campbell K. (2001). The plague of the subject: Psychoanalysis and Judith Butler’s psychic life of power. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 6, 1/2: 35-48., 10.1023/A:1010137922835DOI: 10.1023/A:1010137922835
  55. Carrigan T., Connell B. & Lee J. (1985). Toward a new sociology of masculinity. Theory and Society, 14, 5: 551-604., 10.1007/BF00160017DOI: 10.1007/BF00160017
  56. Cashmore E. & Cleland J. (2012). Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: Evidence of a more inclusive environment. British Journal of Sociology, 63, 2: 370-387.
  57. Chodorow N. (1978). The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  58. Connell R.W. (1977). Ruling Class, Ruling Culture: Studies of Conflict, Power and Hegemony in Australian Life. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  59. Connell R.W. (1987). Gender and Power. Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
  60. Connell R.W. (1994). Psychoanalysis on masculinity. In: Brod H. & Kaufman M., editors, The-orizing Masculinity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994, pp. 11-38.
  61. Connell R.W. (1995). Masculinities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  62. Connell R.W. (2000). The Men and the Boys. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  63. Connell R.W. & Messerschmidt J.W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender and Society, 19, 6: 829-859., 10.1177/0891243205278639DOI: 10.1177/0891243205278639
  64. Dashper K. (2012). “Dressage is full of queens!”. Masculinity, sexuality and equestrian sport. Sociology, 46, 6: 1109-1124., 10.1177/0038038512437898DOI: 10.1177/0038038512437898
  65. de Boise S. (2015). I’m not homophobic, “I’ve got gay friends”: Evaluating the validity of in-clusive masculinity. Men and Masculinities, 18, 3: 318-339., 10.1177/1097184X14554951DOI: 10.1177/1097184X14554951
  66. Demetriou D.Z. (2001). Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity: A critique. Theory and Society, 30, 3: 337-361., 10.1023/A:1017596718715DOI: 10.1023/A:1017596718715
  67. Demetriou D.Z. (2005). “Adventures of a Diasporic Intellectual: R.W. Connell, from Social Class to the Synthetic Turn in Gender Analysis” (Thesis, Ph.D. Doctorate, Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, Australia): https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/9256?mode=full.
  68. Derks B., Ellemers N., van Laar C. & de Groot K. (2011). Do sexist organizational cultures create the Queen Bee? British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 3: 519-535., 10.1348/014466610X525280DOI: 10.1348/014466610X525280
  69. Derks B., van Laar C. & Ellemers N. (2016). The queen bee phenomenon: Why women leaders distance themselves from junior women. Leadership Quarterly, 27, 3: 456-469.
  70. Derrida J. (1967). De la Grammatologie. Paris: Minuit (trad. it.: Della grammatologia. Milano: Jaca Book, 1969).
  71. Donovan B. (1998). Political consequences of private authority: Promise Keepers and the trans-formation of hegemonic masculinity. Theory & Society, 27, 6: 817-843., 10.1023/A:1006909132442DOI: 10.1023/A:1006909132442
  72. Faludi S. (1991). Backlash: The Undeclared War against American Women. New York: Three Rivers Press.
  73. Flax J. (2013). The scandal of desire: Psychoanalysis and disruptions of gender. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 40, 1: 47-68., 10.1080/00107530.2004.10747235DOI: 10.1080/00107530.2004.10747235
  74. Freud S. (1905). Tre saggi sulla teoria sessuale. Opere, 4: 443-546. Torino: Boringhieri, 1970.
  75. Freud S. (1914 [1918]). Dalla storia di una nevrosi infantile (Caso clinico dell’Uomo dei lupi). Opere, 7: 483-593. Torino: Boringhieri, 1975.
  76. Freud S. (1922 [1923]). L’Io e l’Es. Opere, 9: 471-520. Torino: Boringhieri, 1977.
  77. Freud S. (1932 [1933]). Introduzione alla psicoanalisi (nuova serie di lezioni). Opere, 11: 117-284. Torino: Boringhieri, 1979.
  78. Gardiner J.K. (2002). Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions. New York: Columbia University Press.
  79. Gough H. (1952). Identifying psychological femininity. Educational and Psychological Mea-surement, 12, 3: 427-439., 10.1177/001316445201200309DOI: 10.1177/001316445201200309
  80. Gourarier M. (2017). Alpha mâle. Séduire les femmes pour s’apprécier entre hommes. Paris: Seuil.
  81. Gramsci A. (1929-35 [1948-51]). Quaderni del carcere. Torino: Einaudi, 1948-51.
  82. Grosz E.A. (1990). Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction. London: Routledge.
  83. Halberstam J. (1998). Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  84. Hearn J. (2004). From hegemonic masculinity to the hegemony of man. Feminist Theory, 5, 1: 49-72., 10.1177/1464700104040813DOI: 10.1177/1464700104040813
  85. Hickey-Moody A. & Rasmussen M. L. (2009). The sexed subject in-between Deleuze and But-ler. In: Nigianni C. & Storr M., editors, Deleuze & Queer Theory. Edinburgh, UK: Edin-burgh University Press, 2009, pp. 37-53.
  86. Howson R. (2008). Hegemonic masculinity in the theory of hegemony. Men and Masculinities, 11, 1: 109-113., 10.1177/1097184X08315105DOI: 10.1177/1097184X08315105

Adriano Zamperini, David Primo, Ines Testoni, in "PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE" 3/2018, pp. 399-426, DOI:10.3280/PU2018-003004

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche