This article aims to review the issues, definitions and chronology usually proposed about the "Welfare State" and "neoliberalism" in France. On the one hand, because the "social state" was challenged within it even during the period of its supposed apogee: there is a form of anti-Keynesianism in the Gaullist period. On the other hand, because neoliberalism does not mean the absence of State intervention. The article looks closely at the relationship between State and the market. Their links are all the more important with the construction of the "common market" and new relations between the State and the European authorities, when new forms of "governance" are put in place.
Keywords: France, Welfare State, neoliberalism, Common market.