Clicca qui per scaricare

The subrogation of motherhood: A judicial institution that puts kinship on the market
Titolo Rivista: SALUTE E SOCIETÀ 
Autori/Curatori: Daniela Danna 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: 1 Gestational surrogacy: A sociological and interdisciplinary approach. Consuelo Corradi, Daniela Bandelli (a cura di) Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  16 P. 44-59 Dimensione file:  181 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SES2019-001004
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

This article explores the definitions of surrogacy within an international perspective. The definitions that appear in the debates and laws belong to four frameworks. The first describes the subrogation of motherhood as a medical technique: many laws and law proposals admit surrogacy only in this form. The second describes it as a gift; many countries only acknowledge "altruistic" surrogacy in their laws. The third describes it as a "job"; however, this model, advocated for also by social scientists, is not legal in any country of the world. The fourth is the most adequate: subrogation of motherhood essentially described as a judicial institution which generates a market in filiation. Within this framework, women agree to giving up their new-born children in contracts/agreements before the pregnancy; this framework, which is adopted in some countries, presents a slippery slope towards the can-cellation of any legal relationship between mother and child.

Keywords: Subrogation of motherhood; surrogacy; judicial institution; mother; market; filiation.

  1. Achmad C. (2013). New Zealand. In Trimmings K., Beaumont P., a cura di, International surrogacy arrangements: legal regulation at the international level. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  2. Alexander L.S. (2006). I’m having their baby: a guide to the gestational surrogate., USA.
  3. Balzano A. (2015). Introduzione. Neoliberismo e nuove tecnologie. In Cooper M., Waldby C., a cura di, Biolavoro Globale. Roma: DeriveApprodi.
  4. Baslington H. (2002). The Social Organisation of Surrogacy: Relinquishing a Baby and the Role of Payment in the Psychological Detachment Process. Journal of Health Psychology, 7(1): 57-71., DOI: 10.1177/135910530200700165
  5. Berend Z. (2016). The Online World of Surrogacy. New York-Oxford: Berghahn Books.
  6. Bindel J. (2017). The pimping of prostitution: abolishing the sex work myth. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  7. Cooper M., Waldby, C. (2014). Clinical labor: tissue donors and research subjects in the global bioeconomy. Durham: Duke University Press.
  8. Court of Appeal (2017). C.M. v. M.C. Court of appeal of the state of California, second appellate district, division one (B270525) (Los Angeles County super. Ct. No. BF054159) 12.6.17 --
  9. Crawford J. B. (2010). Taxation, pregnancy, and privacy. William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 16(2): 327-368.
  10. Danna D. (2017a). Fare un figlio per altri è giusto… (Falso)! Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  11. Danna D. (2017b). Maternità. Surrogata? Trieste: Asterios.
  12. Danna D. (2015). Contract Children. Questioning Surrogacy. Stuttgart: Ibidem.
  13. Doughty S. (2015). Judge takes toddler from ‘homophobic’ mum to live with gay dad and his lover. Daily Mail Online, 5.4.2015.
  14. Ekis Ekman K. (2013). Being and Being Bought: Prostitution, Surrogacy and the Split Self. Melbourne: Spinifex.
  15. Ergas Y. (2012). The transnationalization of everyday life: cross-border reproductive surrogacy, human rights and the re-visioning of international law. (12.03.2012) Institute for the Study of Human Right: Columbia College.
  16. European Parliament (2013). A comparative study on the regime of surrogacy in EU member states. Bruxelles: European Union, Directorate general for internal policies.
  17. Fuller S.M.Z. (2015). Successful Surrogacy. An intended parents’ guide to a rewarding relationship with their surrogate mother. Reston: Roosevelt Academy Press.
  18. Gupta J.A. (2006). Towards transnational feminism. Some reflections and concerns in relation to the globalization of reproductive technologies. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13(2): 23-38., DOI: 10.1177/135050680606000
  19. Hatzis, Aristides N. 2010. The Regulation of Surrogate Motherhood in Greece --,d.d24&cad=rja retrieved 27.12.2014.
  20. Hayden S. (2017). Surrogate mother loses battle to keep baby from gay couple, The Independent 19.11.17 -- (
  21. Hochschild A.R. (2012). The outsourced self. Intimate life in market times. New York: Metropolitan Books.
  22. Horsey K., Smith N., Norcross S., Ghevaert L., Jones S. (2015). Surrogacy in the UK: myth busting and reform’ report of the Surrogacy UK working group on surrogacy law reform. --
  23. Katz Rothman, B. (1989). Women as fathers: motherhood and child care under a modified patriarchy. Gender and Society, 3(1): 89-104., DOI: 10.1177/08912438900300100
  24. Keane N., Breo D. (1981). The surrogate mother. New York: Everest Publishers.
  25. Keyes M. (2013). Australia. In K. Trimmings and P. Beaumont, a cura di, International surrogacy arrangements: legal regulation at the international level. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  26. Lamm E. (2013). Mexico. In K. Trimmings and P. Beaumont, a cura di, International surrogacy arrangements: legal regulation at the international level. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  27. Landes W.M., Posner R. A. (1978). The economics of the baby shortage. The Journal of Legal Studies, 7(2): 323-348.
  28. Lipkin N., Samama E. (2010). Surrogacy in Israel. Status Report 2010 and Proposals for Legislative Amendment. Isha L’Isha-Haifa Feminist Center.
  29. Motluk A. (2014). The baby-making business: on the front lines of Toronto’s booming, semi-legal surrogacy market. Toronto Life 02.02.2014.
  30. Mussen D. (2014). Surrogacy payment review urged, Stuff 18.08.2014. --
  31. Naveen M. (2013). Den globale baby. Det norske surrogatieventyret in India. Oslo: Aschehoug.
  32. New Zealand Law Commission (2004). Surrogacy --
  33. Pande A. (2014). Wombs in labor. Transnational commercial surrogacy in India. New York: Columbia University Press.
  34. Parliament of Australia (2015). Surrogacy Matters. Inquiry into the regulatory and legislative aspects of international and domestic surrogacy arrangements. Canberra. --
  35. Ragoné H. (1994). Surrogate motherhood: conception in the heart. Boulder: Westview Press.
  36. Rokas K.A. (2013). Greece. In K. Trimmings and P. Beaumont, a cura di, International surrogacy arrangements: legal regulation at the international level. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  37. Samana E. (2015). Within me but not mine. Surrogacy in Israel. In J.-D. Rainhorn and S. El Boudamoussi, a cura di, New cannibal markets. Globalisation and commodification of the human body. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme.
  38. Shanley M.L. (1993). ‘Surrogate mothering’ and women’s freedom: a critique of contracts for human reproduction. Signs, 18(3): 618-639.
  39. Smith Rotabi K. (2010a). “Human Rights and the Business of Reproduction: Surrogacy Replacing International Adoption from Guatemala”, May 20, --
  40. Teman E. (2010). Birthing a mother: the surrogate body and the pregnant self. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  41. Tecú J., Lamm E. (2013). Guatemala. In K. Trimmings and P. Beaumont, a cura di, International surrogacy arrangements: legal regulation at the international level, 167-174. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  42. Weis C. (2015). Workers or Mothers? The Business of Surrogacy in Russia. Opendemocracy 15.12.2015. --
  43. Whitelaw A. (2012). Hundreds Pay for Overseas Surrogacy, The Sydney Morning Herald 3.6.2012. --

  1. Antonio Camorrino, Mother Nature and the nature of motherhood: Gestational surrogacy and ecospirituality as two postmodern forms of sacralization in Current Sociology /2021 pp. 212, DOI: 10.1177/0011392120964894

Daniela Danna, in "SALUTE E SOCIETÀ" 1/2019, pp. 44-59, DOI:10.3280/SES2019-001004


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche