Clicca qui per scaricare

Diversity in the workplace: a review of theory and methodologies and propositions for future research
Titolo Rivista: SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO  
Autori/Curatori: Debora Gottardello 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: 153 Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  20 P. 202-221 Dimensione file:  383 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SL2019-153012
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2016. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be transferred from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

La globalizzazione ha comportato una più ampia diversità nella composizione della forza lavoro nelle organizzazioni produttive. Di conseguenza la gestione della diversità è diventata una nuova leva per la crescita aziendale nel mercato globale. L’articolo presenta i risultati di una rassegna della letteratura scientifica relativa ai modelli esistenti per la gestione della diversità, riferita al perido 1980-2016, e identifica i limiti di tali modelli. Dalla rassegna emerge in particolare che mancano informazioni su come nei casi di imprese multinazionali i modelli adottati nelle sedi centrali possano essere trasferiti alle filiali decentrate. L’articolo suggerisce alcune ipotesi che riguardano la traduzione delle pratiche di gestione della diversità nelle sedi decentrate in una prospettiva di definizione di una strategia globale. L’analisi evidenzia la rilevanza strategica di sfruttare il potenziale incorporato in gruppi di lavoro culturalmente diversificati e la necessità di diversificare le modalità di trasferimento delle pratiche di gestione della diversità dalle sedi centrali verso quelle periferiche.
Keywords: Workforce diversity, diversity management, cultura della diversità

  1. Adler N.J. (1983). Cross-Cultural Management: Issue to be faced. International Studies of Management and Organization, 13(1-2): 7-45., 10.1080/00208825.1983.11656357DOI: 10.1080/00208825.1983.11656357
  2. Bass B.M., Avolio B.J., Jung D.I., Berson Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of applied psychology, 88(2): 207., 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207
  3. Bell J.M., Hartmann D. (2007). Diversity in everyday discourse: The cultural ambiguities and consequences of “happy talk”. American Sociological Review, 72 (6): 895-914., 10.1177/000312240707200603DOI: 10.1177/000312240707200603
  4. Carter D.A., Simkins B.J., Simpson W.G. (2003). Corporate governance, board diversity, and firm value. Financial review, 38(1): 33-53., 10.1111/1540-6288.00034DOI: 10.1111/1540-6288.00034
  5. Chatman J.A., Polzer J.T., Barsade S.G., Neale M.A. (1998). Being different yet feeling similar: The influence of demographic composition and organizational culture on work processes and outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(4): 749-780., 10.2307/2393615DOI: 10.2307/2393615
  6. Cox T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory research & practices. San Francisco: Berrett- Koehler Publishers.
  7. Cox T. (2001). Creating the multicultural organization: A strategy for capturing the power of diversity. University of Michigan business school management series. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass.
  8. Cox T., Blake S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive, 5(3):45-56.
  9. Cox T., Lobel S.A., McLeod P.L. (1991). Effects of ethnic group cultural differences on cooperative and competitive behavior on a group task. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4): 827-847., 10.2307/256391DOI: 10.2307/256391
  10. Ely R.J., Thomas D.A. (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative science quarterly, 46(2): 229-273., 10.2307/2667087DOI: 10.2307/2667087
  11. Flood R.L., Romm N.R. (1996). Contours of diversity management and triple loop learning. Kybernetes, 25(7/8), 154-163., 10.1108/03684929610149747DOI: 10.1108/03684929610149747
  12. Fryer Jr. R.G., Loury G.C. (2013). Valuing diversity. Journal of Political Economy, 121(4): 747-774., 10.1086/671180DOI: 10.1086/671180
  13. Gaertner L., Sedikides C., Chang K. (2008). On pancultural self-enhancement: Well-adjusted Taiwanese self-enhance on personally valued traits. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(4): 463-477., 10.1177/0022022108318431DOI: 10.1177/0022022108318431
  14. Ghoshal S., Nohria N. (1989). Internal differentiation within multinational corporations. Strategic management journal, 10(4): 323-337.
  15. Gilbert J.A., Stead B.A., Ivancevich J.M. (1999). Diversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(1):61-76.
  16. Gilbert J.A., Ivancevich J.M. (1999a). Organizational diplomacy: The Bridge for managing diversity. Human Resource Planning, 22(3): 29-39.
  17. Gilbert J.A., Ivancevich J.M. (1999b). A re-examination of organizational commitment. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 14(3): 385-396.
  18. Gilbert J.A., Ivancevich J.M. (2000a). Diversity management: Time for a new Approach. Public Personnel Management, 29(1): 75-92., 10.1177/009102600002900106DOI: 10.1177/009102600002900106
  19. Gilbert J.A., Ivancevich J.M. (2000b). Valuing diversity: A tale of two organizations. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1): 93-105.
  20. Gottardello D. (2016). La gestión de la diversidad en las empresas: desde las acciones afirmativas a las políticas de igualdad de oportunidades y las repercusiones en el contexto Español. Gizarte Ekonomiaren Euskal Aldizkaria-Revista Vasca de Economía Social, 13.
  21. Gottardello D. (2019). The relationship between intellectual property and human right and a policy oriented recommendations. NTUT Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Management, 7(2): 90-105.
  22. Hicks-Clarke D.P.I. (2000). Climate for diversity and its effects on career and organisational attitudes and perceptions. Human Resources Abstracts, 35(3): 324-345., 10.1108/00483480010324689DOI: 10.1108/00483480010324689
  23. Inglehart R., Norris P., Ronald I. (2003). Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge University Press.
  24. Jonsen K., Tatli A., Özbilgin M.F., Bell M.P. (2013). The tragedy of the uncommons: Reframing workforce diversity. Human Relations, 66(2): 271-294., 10.1177/0018726712466575DOI: 10.1177/0018726712466575
  25. Kossek E.E., Lobel S. (1996). Managing Diversity. Human resources strategies for transforming the workplace. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.
  26. Kroeber A.L., Parsons T. (1958). The concepts of culture and of social system. American sociological review, 23(5): 582-583., 10.2307/2088655DOI: 10.2307/2088655
  27. Loden M., Rosener J.B. (1991). Workforce America!: Managing employee diversity as a vital resource. McGraw-Hill.
  28. Luijters K., Van der Zee K.I., Otten S. (2008). Cultural diversity in organizations: Enhancing identification by valuing differences. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2): 154-163.
  29. Meyers J.S., Vallas S.P. (2016). Diversity regimes in worker cooperatives: workplace inequality under conditions of worker control. The Sociological Quarterly, 57(1): 98-128.
  30. Milner S. (2017). Trade unions, equality and diversity: an inconsistent record of transformative action. Work, Employment and Society, 31(1): 191-196., 10.1177/0950017016650622DOI: 10.1177/0950017016650622
  31. Noon M (2007). The fatal flaw of diversity and the business case for ethnic minorities. Work, Employment & Society, 21(4): 773-784., 10.1177/0950017007082886DOI: 10.1177/0950017007082886
  32. Pless N.M., Maak T. (2004). Building an inclusive diversity culture: Principles, processes and practice. Journal of Business Ethics, 54(2): 129-147.
  33. Podsiadlowski A., Otten S., van der Zee K. (2009). Diversity perspectives. In Symposium on workplace diversity. Groningen. The Netherlands.
  34. Rosenberg M., Schooler C., Schoenbach C., Rosenberg F. (1995). Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: Different concepts, different outcomes. American sociological review, 60: 141-156., 10.2307/2096350DOI: 10.2307/2096350
  35. Thomas D.A., Ely R.J. (1996). Making differences matter. Harvard business review, 74 (5): 79-90

Debora Gottardello, in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO " 153/2019, pp. 202-221, DOI:10.3280/SL2019-153012

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche