An increasingly robust science of classroom processes identifies teacher-student interactions as a key asset for improving student learning and develop-ment. Observational methods to assess interactions are proving useful in both research and application, used as the basis for professional development models, specifically coaching, that improve both interactions and student learning, as shown in experimental trials. Existing research shows promise for conceptualiz-ing, measuring, and improving teachers’ interactions with students, but a number of gaps remain. The science needs to be extended, with more replication across grades and contexts. Also, the science needs to link to contemporary work in de-velopmental neuroscience and physiology. Investments in that scientific work will pay off in future years; however, enough is known currently to take policy action, at state and federal levels, pertaining to teacher performance assessment, accountability, and teacher preparation.
Keywords: Educational relationship, student-teacher interaction, learning, coa-ching-intervention.