Clicca qui per scaricare

The Organic Districts in Italy. An Interpretative Hypothesis in the Light of the Common Pool Resources Theory
Titolo Rivista: ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE 
Autori/Curatori: Alberto Sturla , Elena Viganò, Laura Viganò 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  30 P. 429-458 Dimensione file:  196 KB
DOI:  10.3280/ECAG2019-002013
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


This paper investigates the governance system of 12 Italian Organic Districts (ODs) with the purpose of evaluating the extent to which it adheres to Ostrom’s model (1990) concerning Common Pool Resources (CPRs) management. Starting from the definition of territory as a CPR, ODs can be defined as selforganized and governed communities, able to manage it in the three dimensions (environmental, social, and economic) of sustainability. Results show a partial adaptation of the OD model to Ostrom’s design principles. An exact match is not possible, as some of the features required to comply with these principles are not within the competence of the ODs. In fact, there is still a lack of an adequate control/monitoring and sanction system that limits their capability of governing the commons, i.e. the territory in this case. However, the participatory approach, that is inherent to the governance system of ODs, allows for a certain degree of adherence to Ostrom’s model of CPRs management. Two levels of adherence of the ODs to this model have been identified. The first one is implied in their nature and finds its legitimacy in the framework of rules and laws that regulates organic farming; the second level of adherence is a consequence of the ODs socio-institutional maturity.


Keywords: Organic districts; sustainable development; territory; common pool resources.
Jel Code: Q01, Q20, Q56

  1. aiab (2016). Linee Guida Bio-Distretti, modello italiano di eccellenza.
  2. Altieri, M.A. (1998). Ecological impacts of industrial agriculture and the possibilities for truly sustainable farming. Monthly Review: An Indipendent Socialist Magazine, 50(1), 60-71.
  3. Amoroso, B. (2009). Per il bene comune. Dallo stato del benessere alla societa del benessere. Parma: Diabasis.
  4. Araral, E. (2014). Ostrom, Hardin and the commons: A critical appreciation and a revisionist view. Environmental Science & Policy, 36(1), 1-23.
  5. Axelrod, R. (2006). The Evolution of Cooperation (Revised ed.). Cambridge MA: Perseus Books Group.
  6. Barberi, P. (2015). Functional Biodiversity in Organic Systems: the Way Forward?.Sustainable Agriculture Research, 4(3), 26-31.
  7. Basu, S., Jongerden, J., & Ruivenkamp, G. (2017). Development of the drought tolerant variety Sahbhagi Dhan: exploring the concepts commons and community building. International Journal of the Commons, 11(1), 144-170.
  8. Baudry, J., Assmann, K.E., Touvier, M., Alles, B., Seconda, L., Latino-Martel, P., Ezzedine, K., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Lairon, D., & Kesse-Guyot, E. (2018).
  9. Association of Frequency of Organic Food Consumption With Cancer Risk. Findings From the NutriNet-Sante Prospective Cohort Study. JAMA Internal Medicine, 178(12), 1597-1606.
  10. Bavec, M., & Bavec, F. (2015). Impact of Organic Farming on Biodiversity. In Blanco, J.A. (Ed.). Biodiversity in Ecosystems, Linking Structure and Function (pp. 185-202). London, UK: IntechOpen., 10.5772/58494DOI: 10.5772/58494
  11. Bengtsson, J., Ahnstromann J., & Weibull, A.C. (2005). The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(2), 261-269.
  12. Blasi, G., Caruso, A., & Viganò, E. (2016). Progettazione partecipata di una mensa scolastica sostenibile mediante lo sviluppo di un Business Model Canvas. Economia Agroalimentare, 3, 319-344.
  13. Carpenter, S. R. (1998). Sustainability and Common-Pool Resources: Alternatives to Tragedy. Philosophy and Technology, 3(4), 170-183.
  14. Ceccarelli, S. (2018). Agriculture, Environment, Nutrition and Human Health. In Quagliarotti, D.A.L. & Vigano, E. (Eds.). Mediterranean, The Sea That Unites. New Prospects for the Agri-Food System. Milano: Cisalpino, Istituto Editoriale Universitario.
  15. Chavas, J.-P. (2008). On the economics of agricultural production. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 52, 365-380.
  16. Chevallard, Y. (1991). La Transposition didactique. Du savoir savant au savoir enseigner. Grenoble: La Pensee Sauvage.
  17. Dardot, P., & Laval, C. (2014). Commun. Essai sur la revolution au XXI siecle. Paris: La Decouverte.
  18. efsa (2015). The 2013 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food. Efsa Journal, 13(3), 4038, 1-169. -- [www.efsa.europa.eu/it/efsajournal/pub/4038].
  19. Etzioni, A. (1961). Comparative analysis of complex organizations, rev. New York: Free Press.
  20. European Parliament (2016). Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture. European Parliamentary Research Service, Scientific Foresight Unit, PE 581.922. -- [www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/581922/EPRS_STU(2016)581922_EN.pdf].
  21. Fagioli, F.F., Rocchi, L., Paolotti, L., Słowiński, R., & Boggia, A. (2017). From the farm to the agri-food system: A multiple criteria framework to evaluate extended multi-functional value. Ecological Indicators, 79(1), 91-102.
  22. fao (2018). The future of food and agriculture, Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B.J., & Acheson, J.M. (1990). The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-two years later. Human Ecology, 18(1), 1-19., 10.1007/BF00889070DOI: 10.1007/BF00889070
  23. Foster, S.R. (2013). Collective Action and the Urban Commons. Notre Dame Law Review, 87(1). -- Available at: http://scholarship.law.nd.edu/ndlr/vol87/iss1/2.
  24. Gattinger, A., Muller, A., Haeni, M., Skinner, C., Fliessbach, A., Buchmann, N., Mader, P., Stolze, M., Smith, P., El-Hage Scialabba, N., & Niggli, U. (2012). Enhanced top soil carbon stocks under organic farming. Sustainability, 109(44), 18226-18231. -- www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1209429109.
  25. Gattullo, M. (2018). Il paesaggio come Commons. Riflessioni teoriche e analisi empiriche: il caso del Parco Paduli nel Salento delle Serre. Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana, 14, 1(1), 79-89.
  26. Gidwani, V.K., & Baviskar, A. (2011). Urban commons. Economic and Political Weekly, 46(50), 42-43.
  27. Giuca, S. (2015). Le certificazioni “potenziate” per il biologico. In Abitabile, C. (Ed.). L’internazionalizzazione del biologico italiano (pp. 176-182), Roma: CREA. -- http://dspace.crea.gov.it/handle/inea/1295.
  28. Gomiero, T., Pimentel, D., & Paoletti, M. (2011). Environmental Impact of Different Agricultural Management Practices: Conventional vs. Organic Agriculture Critical Reviews. Plant Sciences, 30(1), 95-124., 10.1080/07352689.2011.554355DOI: 10.1080/07352689.2011.554355
  29. Gurney, G.G., Cinner, J.E., Sartin, J., Pressey, R.L., Ban, N.C., Marshall, N.A., & Prabuning, D. (2016). Participation in devolved commons management: Multiscale socioeconomic factors related to individuals’ participation in community-based management of marine protected areas in Indonesia. Environmental Science & Policy, 61, 212-220.
  30. Hamuda, H.E.A.F.B., & Patko, I. (2010). Relationship between Environmental Impacts and Modern Agriculture. Obuda University e‐Bulletin, 1(1), 87-98.
  31. Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162, 1243-48.
  32. Hofstadter, D.R. (1983). Prisoner’s Dilemma, Computer Tournaments and Evolution of Cooperation. Scientific American, 248(5), 16-26.
  33. ifoam (2007). PGS guidelines: How Participatory Guarantee Systems can develop and function. ifoam, Bonn, Germany. -- www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/page/files/ifoam_pgs_web.pdf.
  34. inner (2017). Ecoregion’s Portal. -- www.ecoregion.info.
  35. ispra-snpa (2018a). Consumo di suolo, dinamiche territoriali e servizi ecosistemici. Rapporto 2018, 288/2018. -- www.isprambiente.gov.it/it/pubblicazioni/rapporti/consumo-di-suolo-dinamiche-territoriali-e-servizi-ecosistemici.-edizione-2018 [Accessed March 14, 2019].
  36. ispra-snpa (2018b). Rapporto Nazionale Pesticidi nelle Acque dati 2015-2016, 282/2018, -- www.isprambiente.gov.it/it/pubblicazioni/rapporti/rapporto-nazionalepesticidi-nelle-acque-dati-2015-2016.-edizione-2018 [Accessed March 12, 2019].
  37. ispra-snpa (2018c). Territorio. Processi e trasformazione in Italia. [Accessed March 14, 2019].
  38. La Pira, G. (1946). Commissione per la Costituente. Prima sottocommissione. 1° ottobre 1946. -- http://legislature.camera.it/_dati/costituente/lavori/I_Sottocommissione/sed026/sed026nc.pdf.
  39. Lupino, F. (2017). Nocciole, e allarme fitofarmaci sui Cimini: preoccupati i cittadini, ma i sindaci si spaccano, Il Messaggero.it, 30 marzo 2017, -- www.ilmessaggero.it/viterbo/nocciole_allarme_fitofarmaci_sui_cimini_preoccupati_cittadini_ma_sindaci_si_spaccano-2349665.html?refresh_ce.
  40. Maddalena, P. (2014). Territorio, bene comune degli italiani. Roma: Donzelli. Mariani, A., & Vigano, E. (2013). Il Commercio equo: un modello replicabile per lo sviluppo sostenibile. Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilita, 1, 149-161.
  41. Marriott, E.E., & Wander, M.M. (2006). Total and Labile Soil Organic Matter in Organic and Conventional Farming Systems. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 70(3), 950-959.
  42. Martini, B. (2012). Il sistema della formazione ai saperi. Soggetti, Oggetti, Istituzioni. Napoli: Tecnodid.
  43. Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage: London.
  44. Mostafalou, S., & Abdollahi, M. (2017). Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity. Archives of Toxicology, 91(2), 549-599.
  45. Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  46. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  47. Ostrom, E. (2000). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 137-158.
  48. Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C., Norgaad, R., & Policansky, D. (1999). Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges. Science, 284(5412), 278-282.
  49. Parker, P., & Schmidt, S. (2017). Enabling urban commons. CoDesign, 13(3), 202-213., 10.1080/15710882.2017.1355000DOI: 10.1080/15710882.2017.1355000
  50. Patton, M.Q. (2001). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. London: Sage.
  51. Polman, N., Poppe, K.J., van der Schans, J.-W., & van der Ploeg, J.D. (2010). Nested markets with common pool resources in multifunctional agriculture. Rivista di Economia Agraria, 65(2), 295-318.
  52. Rahmann, R. (2011). Biodiversity and organic farming: What do we know?. vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research, 3(61), 189-208.
  53. Rodale Institute (2015). The Farming Systems Trial Celebrating 30 years. Kutztown, PA. -- https://rodaleinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/fst-30-year-report.pdf.
  54. Rossi, U., & Enright, T. (2016). Ambivalenza dei commons. In Commons/Comune: geografie, luoghi, spazi, citta. Giornata di studio, Roma, 11 dicembre 2015. Firenze, Societa di Studi Geografici, Memorie Geografiche (nuova serie) (14), 37-46.
  55. Rullani, E. (2009). Lo sviluppo del territorio: l’evoluzione dei distretti industriali e il nuovo ruolo delle citta. Economia Italiana, 2, 427-472.
  56. Samuelson, P.A. (1954). The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure. Review of Economics and Statistics, XXXVI, 387-89.
  57. Santos, V.A., Araujo, A.S.F., Leite, L.F.C., Nunes, L.A.P.L., & Melo, W.J. (2012). Soil microbial biomass and organic matter fractions during transition from conventional to organic farming systems. Geoderma, 170, 227-231.
  58. Skinner, C., Gattinger, A., Krauss, M., Krause, H.M., Mayer, J., van der Heijden, H.-M., & Mader, P. (2019). The impact of long-term organic farming on soil derived greenhouse gas emissions. Scientific Reports, 9(1702), 1-10.
  59. Šmid Hribar, M., Kozina, J., Bole, D., & Urbanc, M. (2018). Public goods, commonpool resources, and the commons: The influence of historical legacy on modern perceptions in Slovenia as a transitional society. Urbani Izziv, 29(1), 96-109.
  60. Squalli, J., & Adamkiewicz, G. (2018). Organic farming and greenhouse gas emissions: A longitudinal U.S. state-level study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 192, 30-42.
  61. Sterling, E.J., Betley, E., Sigouin, A., Gomez, A., Toomey, A., Cullman, G., Malone, C., Pekor, A., Arengo, F., Blair, M., Filardi, C., Landrigan, K., & Porzecanski, A.L. (2017). Assessing the evidence for stakeholder engagement in biodiversity conservation. Biological conservation, 209, 159-171.
  62. Sturla, A. (2018). L’agricoltura biologica per lo sviluppo territoriale. L’esperienza dei distretti biologici. Roma: rrn.
  63. Torquati, B., Vigano, E., & Taglioni, C. (2016). Construction of Alternative Food Networks for organic products: A case study of “Organized Groups of Supply and Demand”. New Medit, 15(4), 53-62.
  64. Tuck, S.L., Winqvist, C., Mota, F., Ahnstrom, J., Turnbull, L.A., & Bengtsson, J. (2014). Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 746-755., 10.1111/1365-2664.12219DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12219
  65. Tucker, A. (1950). A two-person dilemma. In Rasmusen, E. (Ed.). Readings in Games and Information (pp. 7-8). Oxford: Blackwell.
  66. Tuomisto, H.L., Hodge, I.D., Riordan, P., & Macdonals, D.W. (2012). Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A meta-analysis of European research. Journal of Environmental Management, 112, 309-320.
  67. Uphoff, N. (1993). Grassroots organizations and NGOs in rural development: Opportunities with diminishing states and expanding markets. World Development, 21(4), 607-622., 10.1016/0305-750X(93)90113-NDOI: 10.1016/0305-750X(93)90113-N
  68. Vigano, E. Antonelli, G., Bischi, G.I., & Tramontana, F. (2015). Consumo e consumatori di prodotti alimentari nella societa postmoderna. Economia Agroalimentare, 17(1), 59-80., 10.3280/ECAG2015-001004DOI: 10.3280/ECAG2015-001004
  69. Vigano, E., Mariani, A., Taglioni, C., & Torquati, B. (2012). Consumatori e canali alternativi per il biologico. Il caso del Gruppo Organizzato di Domanda e Offerta di aiab-Umbria. Economia Agroalimentare, 14(1), 173-194.

Alberto Sturla , Elena Viganò, Laura Viganò, in "ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE" 2/2019, pp. 429-458, DOI:10.3280/ECAG2019-002013

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche