This study aims to analyse the changes in the crop cultivation during the Great War in southern Tuscany and in particular in the province of Siena. Through an approach also of a quantitative nature, a territory whose economy was based mainly on agriculture is investigated, analysing how it was able to respond to the contingencies of the conflict, with particular attention to the production of grain and its price. This was possible thanks to the construction of special indices on price and production. The historical economic research was also supported by a political-institutional study to observe how the local managing class was able to respond to national directives.
Keywords: Siena, Tuscany, Agriculture, Development, Prices, Production