This essay analyses the place occupied by the Second Vatican Council and the religious "contestation" of the following decade in the last forty years. Starting from Gustavo Gutiérrez’s most famous essay, Teologia de la liberacion: perspectivas, which appeared in Lima in 1971 and in Rome in 1972, it compares Italy and Latin America. How was it possible to interpret, with conceptual instruments born in Europe, in the Middle Ages, what was happening overseas? What happened when the instruments tested overseas returned to Europe? The answer will focus on the analysis of the two extremes of the chronological arc considered, one more precise (1977) and the other wider (around 2014).