Clicca qui per scaricare

Identità multiple, connessione sociale e attivismo sociale: un modello esplicativo in adolescenti immigrati e italiani
Titolo Rivista: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Autori/Curatori: Maria Giuseppina Bartolo, Rocco Servidio, Pasquale Musso, Anna Lisa Palermiti, Nicoló Maria Iannello, Paola Perucchini, Angela Costabile 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2020 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  23 P. 21-43 Dimensione file:  273 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2020-001003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Secondo la prospettiva teorica del Positive Youth Development (PYD), il coinvolgimento dei giovani nell’attivismo sociale, ovvero in iniziative che promuovono il cambiamento sociale, e espressione di un percorso di crescita adeguato. In particolare, il PYD sostiene che l’adesione degli adolescenti immigrati ad azioni in favore del progresso delle comunita ospitanti e indice di adattamento positivo. Nell’ottica del PYD, e necessario sostenere l’impegno civico dei giovani, identificando i fattori individuali ed ecologici che lo favoriscono. Tra questi, l’identita e la connessione sociale multiple sembrano avere un ruolo rilevante, specie in contesti fortemente ambigui, come quello italiano, in termini di accoglienza degli immigrati e di inclusione dei giovani negli spazi di partecipazione civile. A partire da tali premesse, questo lavoro ha testato un modello di relazioni in cui l’identita sociale multipla puo essere considerata una risorsa che influisce positivamente sull’attivismo sociale attraverso il ruolo mediatore della connessione sociale multipla. Tale modello e stato ipotizzato invariante tra adolescenti immigrati ed italiani che, pur affrontando situazioni di vita diverse, condividono lo stesso contesto generale di sviluppo. Allo studio hanno partecipato 86 adolescenti immigrati (57% maschi; Meta = 17.12, DS = 1.73) e 114 adolescenti italiani (52% maschi; Meta = 16.68, DS = 1.68) frequentanti tre scuole superiori di secondo grado nel Sud Italia. I dati sono stati raccolti con l’uso di un questionario self-report che includeva tre misure di identita sociale (nazionale, religiosa, etnica/regionale), tre di connessione sociale (rispetto delle autorita, connessione con la societa italiana e gruppo religioso) e una di attivismo sociale. L’analisi dei dati ha previsto la stima di modelli di mediazione alternativi (totale e parziale) e l’invarianza tra adolescenti immigrati e italiani. I risultati suggeriscono che l’associazione dell’identita sociale multipla con l’attivismo sociale e pienamente mediata dalla connessione sociale multipla in un processo che sembra promuovere un sano impegno sociale sia per gli adolescenti immigrati sia per gli italiani. Quanto emerso offre utili spunti per programmare interventi educativi che stimolino i giovani a esplorare le loro diverse appartenenze sociali e li incoraggino a sentirsi parte di una comunita allargata, verso la quale indirizzare azioni che ne favoriscano il cambiamento in modo costruttivo.


Keywords: Immigrati, PYD, attivismo sociale, identita multiple, connessione sociale.

  1. Ambrosini, M. (2005). Sociologia delle migrazioni. Bologna: Il Mulino. Associazione Italiana di Psicologia (2015). Codice etico per la ricerca in psicologia. -- Disponibile da http://www.aipass.org/node/11560. Bartolo, M. G., Palermiti, A. L., Servidio, R., Musso, P., & Costabile, A. (2019). Mediating processes in the relations of parental monitoring and school climate with cyberbullying: The role of moral disengagement. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 15, 568–594.
  2. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529., DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
  3. Behling, O., & Law, K. S. (2000). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments: Problems and solutions. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Bobek, D., Zaff, J., Li, Y. & Lerner, R. M. (2009). Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of civic action: Towards an integrated measure of civic engagement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 615-627.
  4. Cacioppo, S., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2012). Decoding the invisible forces of social connections. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6, 1-7.
  5. Case, K. A., Iuzzini, J., & Hopkins, M. (2012). Systems of privilege: Intersections, awareness, and applications. Social Issues, 68, 1-10.
  6. Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14, 464-504., DOI: 10.1080/10705510701301834
  7. Cleveland, M., Laroche, M., Pons, F., & Kastoun, R. (2009). Acculturation and consumption: textures of cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 196-212.
  8. Crisp, R. J., & Hewstone, M. (2007). Multiple social categorization. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 163-254., DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(06)39004-1
  9. Crocetti, E., Jahromi, P., & Meeus, W. (2012). Identity and civic engagement in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 521-532.
  10. Crocetti, E., Scrignaro, M., Sica, L. S., & Mafrin, M. E. (2012). Correlates of identity configurations: Three studies with adolescent and emerging adult cohorts. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 732-748.
  11. Curtin, N., Kende, A., & Kende, J. (2016). Navigating multiple identities: The simultaneous influence of advantaged and disadvantaged identities on politicization and activism. Journal of Social Issues, 72, 264-285.
  12. Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 13-24., DOI: 10.1177/0002716203260092
  13. De Waele, M., & Pauwels, L. J. R. (2016). Why do Flemish youth participate in right-wing disruptive groups. In C. Maxson & F. Esbensen (Eds). Gang transitions and transformations in an international context (pp. 173-200). New York: Springer. .
  14. Delanty, G., & Rumford, C. (2005). Rethinking Europe. Social theory and the implications of Europeanization. London: Routledge.
  15. Doosje, B., Loseman, A., & van den Bos, K. (2013). Determinants of radicalization of islamic youth in the Netherlands: Personal uncertainty, perceived injustice, and perceived group threat. Journal of Social Issues, 69, 586-604.
  16. Doosje, B., van den Bos, K., Loseman, A., Feddes, A. R., & Liesbeth, M. (2012). “My in- group is superior!”: Susceptibility for radical right- wing attitudes and behaviors in Dutch youth. Negotiation and conflict management research 5, 253-268.
  17. Epstein, A.L. (1978). Ethos and identity: Three studies in ethnicity. London: Tavistock. Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York: Norton. Erkan Atik, Z., Cok, F., Esen Coban, A., Doğan, T., & Guney Karaman, N. (2014). Akran i̇liskileri olceği’nin turkceye uyarlanmasi: gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 14, 433-446.
  18. European Network Against Racism (2016). Black People in Europe Report Widespread Racism in Anti-Immigration Context. -- Disponibile da http://www.enareu.org/Black-people-in-Europe-report-widespread-racism-in-anti-immigration-context.
  19. Flanagan, C., Syvertsen, A., & Wray-Lake, L. (2007). Youth political activism: sources of public hope in the context of globalization. In: R. K. Silbereisen & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Approaches to Positive Youth Development (pp. 243-256). London: Sage.
  20. Gaertner, L., Iuzzini, J., & O’Mara, E. M. (2008). When rejection by one fosters aggression against many: Multiple-victim aggression as a consequence of social rejection and perceived groupness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 958-970.
  21. Hermann, R. K., & Brewer, M. B. (2004). Why study identity and institutions?. In R. K. Herrmann, T. Risse, & M. B. Brewer (Eds.) Transnational identities: Becoming European in the EU (pp. 1-10). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Hill, J. M., Blokland, A. A. J., & van der Geest, V. R. (2018). Risk factors for self-reported delinquency in emerging adulthood. European Journal of Criminology, 15, 544-566., DOI: 10.1177/1477370817749495
  22. Kasinitiz, P., Mollenkopf, J., & Waters, M. C. (2002). Becoming American/Becoming New Yorkers: Immigrant incorporation in a majority minority city. International Migration Review, 36, 1020-1036.
  23. Kirshner, B. (2007). Youth activism as a context for learning and development. A m e r i c a n B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 5 1, 3 6 7 - 3 7 9 . D O I : 10.1177/0002764207306065.
  24. Kline, R. B. (2016). Methodology in the social sciences. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
  25. Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2005). The development of strategic thinking: Learning to impact human systems in a youth activism program. Human Development, 48, 327-349., DOI: 10.1159/000088251
  26. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170-183., DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.170
  27. Lerner, R. M., Alberts, A. E., & Bobek, D. L. (2007). Thriving youth, flourishing civil society – How positive youth development strengthens democracy and social justice. In B. Stiftung (Ed.), Civic engagement as an educational goal (pp. 21-35). Gutersloh, Germany: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  28. Lerner, R.M. (2005, September). Promoting positive youth development: theoretical and empirical bases. Paper presented at the Workshop on the Science of Adolescent Health and Development, National Research Council/Institute of Medic i ne, Was hington , DC . -- Dis ponibile da :
  29. http://solaris.techlab360.org/sites/default/files/document_library/pubpromotingpositive.pdf.
  30. Lerner, R. M., Agans, J. P., Arbeit, M. R., Chase, P. A., Weiner, M. B., Schmid, K. L., & Warren, A. E. A. (2013). Resilience and positive youth development: A relational developmental systems model. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.) Handbook of Resilience in Children (pp. 293-308). Boston: Springer.
  31. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., von Eye, A., Bowers, E. P., & Lewin-Bizan, S. (2011). Individual and contextual bases of thriving in adolescence: A view of the issues. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 1107-1114.
  32. Linz, S. J., & Sturm, B. A. (2013). The Phenomenon of social isolation in the severely mentally ill. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 49, 243-254.
  33. Loader, B. D. (2007). Young citizens in the digital age. political engagement, young people and new media. New York: Routledge.
  34. Loader, B. D., Vromen, A., & Xenos, M. A. (2014). The networked young citizen. New York: Routledge.
  35. Marsh, D., O’Toole, T., & Jones, S. (2007). The context and consequence of political participation: Citizenship and governance in the UK. In D. Marsh, T. O’Toole & S. Jones (Eds.), Young people and politics in the UK (pp. 31-58). London: Palgrave Macmillan., DOI: 10.1057/9780230625
  36. McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20, 415-433., DOI: 10.1080/09546550802073367
  37. Moore, F. (2006). Strategy, power and negotiation: Social control and expatriate managers in a German multinational corporation. The International Journal o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e Ma n a g e m e n t , 1 7, 3 9 9 - 4 1 3 . D O I : 10.1080/09585190500521359.
  38. Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2009). Measuring political mobilization: The distinction between activism and radicalism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21, 239-260., DOI: 10.1080/09546550902765508.
  39. Mullen, B., Migdal, M. J., & Hewstone, M. (2001). Crossed categorization versus simple categorization and intergroup evaluations: A meta- analysis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 721-736.
  40. Musso, P., Inguglia, C., & Lo Coco, A. (2017). Relationships between ethnic identity, ethnic attitudes, and acculturative stress in Tunisian individuals in early and middle adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 37, 1309-1340., DOI: 10.1177/0272431616659557
  41. Musso, P., Moscardino, U., & Inguglia, C. (2018). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure – Revised (MEIM-R): Psychometric evaluation across immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents in Italy. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 395-410., DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2016.1278363
  42. Muthen, B.O., & Muthen, L.K. (2014). Mplus (versione 7.2) [Computer Software]. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
  43. Palmonari, A. (2011). Psicologia dell’adolescenza. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  44. Phinney, J. S., & Devich-Navarro, M. (1997). Variations in bicultural identification among African American and Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 3-32.
  45. Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 271., DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.271
  46. Ranchetti, G. (2016). Il percorso identitario degli adolescenti di origine straniera. Tra culture affettive e diversita culturali. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  47. Satia-Abouta, J., Patterson, R. E., Neuhouser, M. L., & Elder, J. (2002). Dietary acculturation: Applications to nutrition research and dietetics. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102, 1105-1118., DOI: 10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90247-6
  48. Schaafsma, J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Exclusion, intergroup hostility, and religious fundamentalism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 829-837.
  49. Sherrod, L. R. (2006). Youth activism. An international encyclopedia (Vol. 2). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  50. Sherrod, L. R. (2007). Recognizing civic engagement as a critical domain of human
  51. development. Journal of Research in Human Development, 12, 312-318., DOI: 10.1080/15427609.2015.1068040
  52. Sherrod, L. R., Torney-Purta, J., & Flanagan, C. A. (2010). Handbook of research on civic engagement in youth. New Jersey: Wiley.
  53. Silbereisen, R. K., & Lerner, R. M. (2007). Approaches to positive youth development. London: Sage.
  54. Stryker, S. (1985). Symbolic interaction and role theory. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 311-378). New York: Random House.
  55. Tajfel, H. (1978). Individuals and groups in social psychology. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18, 183-190.
  56. 8260.1979.tb00324.x. Twenge, J. M., Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M., & Stucke, T. S. (2001). If you
  57. can’t join them, beat them: Effects of social exclusion on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1058-1069., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.6.1058
  58. Urban, L. M., & Miller, N. (1998). A theoretical analysis of crossed categorization effects: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 894-908., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.4.894
  59. van Bergen, D. D., Ersanilli, E. F., Pels, T. V. M., & de Ruyter, D. J. (2016). Turkish-Dutch youths’ attitude toward violence for defending the in-group: What role does perceived parenting play? Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 22, 120-133.
  60. van Bergen, D. D., Feddes, A. F., Doosje, B., & Pels, T. V. M. (2015). Collective identity factors and the attitude toward violence in defense of ethnicity or religion among Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan descent. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 47, 89 - 100 . DOI : 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.026.
  61. Van de Vijver, F., & Hambleton, R. K. (1996). Translating tests. European Psychologist, 1, 89-99., DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040.1.2.89
  62. Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Bukowski, W. M. (2011). The role of friendship in child and adolescent psychosocial development. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relations, and groups (pp. 570-571). NY: The Guilford Press.
  63. Warburton, W. A., Williams, K. D., & Cairns, D. R. (2006). When ostracism leads to aggression: The moderating effects of control deprivation. Journal of E x p e r ime n t a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 2, 2 1 3 - 2 2 0 . D O I : 10.1016/j.jesp.2005.03.005.
  64. Youniss, J., Bales, S., Christmas-Best, V., Diversi, M., McLaughlin, M., & Silbereisen, R. (2002). Youth civic engagement in the twenty-first century. Journal of research on adolescence, 12, 121-148., DOI: 10.1111/1532-7795.00027
  65. Zaff, J., Boyd, M., Li, Y., Lerner, J. V., & Lerner, R. M. (2010). Active and engaged citizenship: Multi-group and longitudinal factorial analysis of an integrated construct of civic engagement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 736-750.
  66. Zanfrini, L. (2016). Introduzione alla sociologia delle migrazioni. Bari: Laterza. Zullig, K. J., Valois, R. F., Huebner, E. S., Oeltmann, J. E., & Drane, J. W. (2001). Relationship between perceived life satisfaction and adolescents’ substance abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 279-288., DOI: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00269-5
  67. Deaux, K. (1996). Social identification. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 777-798). New York: Guilford Press

Maria Giuseppina Bartolo, Rocco Servidio, Pasquale Musso, Anna Lisa Palermiti, Nicoló Maria Iannello, Paola Perucchini, Angela Costabile, in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 1/2020, pp. 21-43, DOI:10.3280/RIP2020-001003

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche