Click here to download

Technological addiction and developmental risk: A comparison between Italian and migrant children and adolescents
Author/s: Luca Milani, Giovanni Giulio Valtolina, Diego Boerchi 
Year:  2020 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  30 Pg. 191-220 FullText PDF:  286 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2020-001009
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Abstract The Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in the third section of the DSM-5 as a new behavioral addiction, related to some developmental risks such as depression, anxiety, attention disorders, social phobia, behavioural disorders, low academic performance. Similar to the IGD, the Internet Addiction (AI) has also been studied as a behavioral addiction related to an uncontrolled use of the Web for the purpose of mood modulation. The Internet Addiction has in turn been correlated with numerous devlopmental risks, both in terms of internalization and externalization. Given the vulnerability of migrant populations to behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder, it is important to check whether this vulnerability also includes technological dependencies: IGD and IA. The aims of the present study are: 1) to obtain prevalence data of IGD and IA in students with a migration background, 2) to highlight any maladaptive differences related to technological dependencies in minors with a migratory background. 528 students (673.3% females), aged between 9 and 20 years old (M = 15.76; DS = 2.176), and attending secondary schools of first and second grade in 4 Italian cities, participated to a specific survey on the topic. 9.7% of the students declared that they do not have Italian citizenship. The reserch tools were: VGA Questionnaire (VGA) to measure the Internet Gaming Addiction; Internet Addiction Test (IAT), to evaluate Internet addiction; Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist – Revised 1 (CCSC-R1) to measure coping strategies in difficult situations; Interpersonal Relationship Test (TRI) to estimate the quality of social relationships in different domains. 6.1% of students without Italian citizenship meet the diagnostic criteria for IGD, compared to 2.0% of Italian participants, while there is no statistically significant difference regarding internet addiction. 4.5% of males meet the diagnostic criteria for IGD, against 1.2% of females, while the situation is the opposite with regard to internet addiction: 12.2% for females versus 8.8% of males. Regression models show that being an migrant is a likely risk factor for IGD, along with distraction and avoidant coping strategies. On the contrary, migrant status appears no to be a risk factor for Internet addiction. The results of this study seem to indicate a higher prevalence of IGD in the student population with non-Italian citizenship and confirm that the migratory background appears to be a potential risk factor for the development of the disorder.
Keywords: Internet addiction, internet gaming disorder, migration, developmental risk.

  1. Casale, S., Tella, L., & Fioravanti, G. (2013). Preference for online social interactions among young people: Direct and indirect effects of emotional intelligenc e . Personality and Individual Differences, 54(4), 524-529.
  2. Cheng, C., & Li, A. Y. L. (2014). Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real) life: A meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(12), 755-760.
  3. Chiu, S. I., Lee, J. Z., & Huang, D. H. (2004). Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 5, 571-581.
  4. Choo, H., Gentile, D. A., Sim, T., Li, D., Khoo, A., & Liau, A. K. (2010). Pathological video-gaming among Singaporean youth. Annals Academy of Medicine, 3 9 , 11, 822-829. -- Disponibile online:
  5. Cole, S. H., & Hooley, J. M. (2013). Clinical and Personality Correlates of MMO Gaming: Anxiety and Absorption in Problematic Internet Use. Social Science Computer Review, 31, 4, 424-436., DOI: 10.1177/0894439312475280
  6. CONI (2014), “Diffusione, pratica ed implementazione di attivita sportive a favore dei minori stranieri ospiti del sistema di accoglienza nazionale-Prog. 1343”. -- Disponibile online:
  7. Dreier, M., Wolfling, K., Duven, E., Giralt, S., Beutel, M. E., & Muller, K. W. (2017). Free-to-play: about addicted whales, at risk dolphins and healthy minnows. Monetarization design and Internet gaming disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 328-333.
  8. Dworak, M., Schierl, T., Bruns, T., & Struder, H. K. (2007). Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120, 5, 978-985.
  9. Ellenbogen, S., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (2007). A cross-cultural study of gambling behaviour among adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(1), 25-39.
  10. Festl, R., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2013). Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults. Addiction, 108, 3, 592-599.
  11. Gans H. J. (2009). Reflections on symbolic ethnicity. Ethnicities, 9, 1, 123-130
  12. Gentile, D. A., Choo, H., Liau, A., Sim, T., Li, D., Fung, D., & Khoo, A. (2011). Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127, 2, 319-329.
  13. Gentile, D. A., Swing, E. L., Lim, C. G. & Khoo, A. (2012). Video Game Playing, Attention Problems, and Impulsiveness: Evidence of Bidirectional Causality. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 1, 62-70.
  14. Gainsbury, S. M. (2017). Cultural competence in the treatment of addictions: Theory, practice and evidence. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 24, 4, 987-1001.
  15. Gennari, M., & Di Nuovo, S. (Eds.) (2011). Lʼ incontro con lʼaltro: migrazioni e culture familiari. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  16. Giuliani, C., Tagliabue, S., & Regalia, C. (2018). Psychological Well-Being, Multiple Identities, and Discrimination Among First and Second Generation Immigrant Muslims. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14, 1, 66-87.
  17. Guarnaccia, P., & Lopez, S. (1998). Mental health and adjustment of immigrant and refugee children. Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 537-553., DOI: 10.1016/S1056-4993(18)30228-1
  18. Hayer, T., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Gambling. In: T. Gullotta, R. Plant & M. Evans (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent behavioral problems: Evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment - 2nd ed. (pp. 539-558). New York: Springer.
  19. Hussain, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Excessive use of massively multi-player online role-playing games: a pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 563-571.
  20. ISFE (2012). Videogames in Europe: consumer study. -- Disponibile online:
  21. ISMU (2019). Venticinquesimo rapporto sulle migrazioni in Italia. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  22. ISTAT (2019). Cittadini e ICT. Report anno 2019. -- Disponibile online:
  23. Jeong, E .J. & Kim, D. W. (2011). Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14, 4, 213-221.
  24. Kien, C., Sommer, I., Faustmann, A., Gibson, L., Schneider, M., Krczal, E. & Brattstrom, P. (2018). Prevalence of mental disorders in young refugees and asylum seekers in European Countries: a systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 10, 1295-1310.
  25. Kim, E. J., Namkoong, K., Ku, T. & Kim, S. J. (2008). The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality t r a i t s . E u r o p e a n P s y c h i a t r y , 2 3 , 3 , 2 1 2 - 2 1 8 ., DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.10.010.
  26. Kim, Y., Park, J. Y., Kim, S. B., Jung, I.- K., Lim, Y. S., & Kim, J.- H. (2010). The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents. Nutrition Research and Practice, 4(1), 51- 57.
  27. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball- throwing animation task: Possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI. Progress in Neuro- Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 39(1), 88-95.
  28. King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). The role of structural characteristics in problematic video game play: an empirical study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9, 3, 320-333.
  29. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukophadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?. American psychologist, 53(9), 1017.
  30. Kuss, D. J. (2013). Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 6, 125-137., DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S39476
  31. Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M.D. (2012). Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies. Brain Sciences, 2, 347-374.
  32. Kuss, D. J., Louws, J., & Wiers, R. W. (2012). Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 15, 9, 480-485.
  33. Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming. Computers in Human Behavior, 27,1, 144-152.
  34. Lam, L. T., Peng, Z., Mai, J., & Jing, J. (2009). The association between internet addiction and selfinjurious behaviour among adolescents. Injury Prevention, 15(6), 403- 408.
  35. Li, D., Liau, A., & Khoo, A. (2011). Examining the Influence of Actual-Ideal Self-Discrepancies, Depression, and Escapism, on Pathological Gaming Among Massively Multiplayer Online Adolescent Gamers. Cyberpsychology, Be h a v i o r , a n d S o c i a l Ne two r k i n g , 1 4 , 9 , 5 3 5 - 5 3 9 . DOI : 10.1089/cyber.2010.0463
  36. Liau, A. K., Choo, H., Li, D., Gentile, D. A., Sim, T., & Khoo, A. (2015). Pathological video-gaming among youth: a prospective study examining dynamic protective factors. Addiction Research & Theory, 23(4), 301–308., DOI: 10.3109/16066359.2014.987759
  37. Lin, F., Zhou, Y., Du, Y., Qin, L., Zhao, Z., Xu, J., et al. (2012). Abnormal white matter integrity in adolescents with Internet addiction disorder: A tract- based spatial statistics study. Plos One, 7(1).
  38. Linder, J. R., & Werner, N. E. (2012). Relationally aggressive media exposure and children’s normative beliefs: does parental mediation matter? Family Relations, 61(3), 488-500.
  39. Loton, D., Borkoles, E., Lubman, D., & Polman, R. (2016). Video game addiction, engagement and symptoms of stress, depression and anxiety: The mediating role of coping. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(4), 565-578.
  40. Marchetti, A., Massaro, D., & Di Dio, C. (2017). The Bodies “at the Forefront”: Mentalization, Memory, and Construction of the Self during Adolescence. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1502.
  41. Milani, L., & Di Blasio, P. (2019). Internet Gaming Disorder e rischio evolutivo: confronto tra popolazione nazionale e popolazione migrante. XXXII Congresso Nazionale AIP - Sezione di Psicologia dello sviluppo e dell’educazione, Napoli, 23-25 Settembre.
  42. Milani, L., Fumagalli, G. D., & Di Blasio, P. (2015). Parental monitoring and use of violent videogames in adolescence. The 14th European Congress of Psychology, Milano, 8-10 Luglio.
  43. Milani, L., La Torre, G., Fiore, M., Grumi, S., Gentile, D. A., Ferrante, M., Miccoli, S., & Di Blasio, P. (2018). Internet Gaming Addiction in Adolescence: risk factors and maladjustment correlates. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 16(4), 888-904.
  44. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic Internet use in adolescence. CyberPsychology &Behavior, 12(6), 681- 684.
  45. Morahan-Martin, J. & Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13-29., DOI: 10.1016/S0747-5632(99)00049-7
  46. Moro, M. R. (2001). Bambini immigrati in cerca di aiuto: i consultori di psicoterapia transculturale. Torino: UTET Universita.
  47. Moro, M. R. (2005). Bambini di qui venuti da altrove. Saggio di transcultura. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  48. Moro, M. R. (2014). Parenthood in migration: how to face vulnerability. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 38, 1, 13-27.
  49. Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2018). Resilience among immigrant youth: The role of culture, development and acculturation. Developmental Review, 50, 99-109.
  50. Motti-Stefanidi, F., Pavlopoulos, V., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2018). Immigrant youth acculturation and perceived discrimination: longitudinal mediation by immigrant peers’ acceptance/rejection. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 59, 36-45.
  51. Mentzoni, R. A., Brunborg, G. S., Molde, H., Myrseth, H., Skouveroe, K. J. M., Hetland, J., & Pallesen, S. (2011). Problematic video game use: Estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 10, 591-596.
  52. Neto, F. (1995). Predictors of satisfaction with life among second generation migrants. Social Indicators Research, 35, 1, 93-116., DOI: 10.1007/BF01079240
  53. Nikken, P., & Jansz, J. (2006). Parental mediation of children’s videogame playing: a comparison of the reports by parents and children, Learning, Media and Technology, 31(2), 181-202., DOI: 10.1080/17439880600756803
  54. Pace, U., D’Urso, G., & Zappulla, C. (2019). Internalizing problems as a mediator in the relationship between low effortful control and internet abuse in adolescence: A three-wave longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 47-54.
  55. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Coyne, S. M., & Collier, K. M. (2016). Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems. Journal of adolescence, 46, 86-97.
  56. Park, M.- H., Park, E. J., Choi, J., Chai, S., Lee, J.- H., Lee, C., et al. (2011). Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests. Psychiatry Research, 190(2- 3), 275- 281.
  57. Pascoe, E., & Richman, L. S. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin, 135, 4, 531-54.
  58. Peters, C. S., & Malesky, L. A. (2008). Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 4, 480-483.
  59. Porter, G., Starcevic, V., Berle, D. & Fenech, P. (2010). Recognizing problem video game use. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 2, 120-128.
  60. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2005). Introduction: The second generation and the children of immigrants longitudinal study. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28, 6, 983-999., DOI: 10.1080/01419870500224109
  61. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R.G. (2001). Legacies. The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley-New York: University of California Press-Russel Sage Foundation.
  62. Premazzi, V. (2010). L’integrazione online. Nativi e migranti fuori e dentro la rete. Rapporto di ricerca, FIERI, Torino.
  63. Regalia, C., Lanz, M. & Cassoni, E. G. M. (2008). Ricongiungimenti familiari nelle seconde generazioni di migranti. In E. Scabini, G. Rossi, a cura di, La migrazione come evento familiare. Milano: Vita e Pensiero, pp. 277- 292.
  64. AESVI (2017). I videogiochi in Italia nel 2017. -- Disponibile online: --
  65. Allison, S. E., von Wahlde, L., Shockley, T., & Gabbard, G. O. (2006). The development of the self in the era of the internet and role-playing fantasy games. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 3, 381-385.
  66. Ayers, T. S., & Sandler, I. N. (2009). Manual for the children’s coping strategies checklist & the how I coped under pressure scale. Tempe: Arizona State University.
  67. Barbato, M. C., Cristini, F., Scacchi, L., & Santinello, M. (2013). Adolescenti immigrati e comportamenti antisociali: maggiore o minore rischio?. Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale, 19, 2, 169-190.
  68. Batthyany, D., Muller, K. W., Benker, F., & Wolfling, K. (2009). Computer game playing: Clinical characteristics of dependence and abuse among adolescents. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121, 15, 502-509.
  69. Beneduce, R. (2004). Frontiere dell’identita e della memoria: etnopsichiatria e migrazioni in un mondo. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  70. Berry, J. W. (2006). Acculturative stress. In Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 287-298). New York: Springer. Besozzi, E. (Ed.). (1999). Crescere tra appartenenze e diversita: Una ricerca tra i preadolescenti delle scuole medie milanesi. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  71. Betancourt, T. S., Frounfelker, R., Mishra, T., Hussein, A. & Falzarano, R. (2015). Addressing health disparities in the mental health of refugee children and adolescents through community-based participatory research: a study in 2 communities. American Journal of Public Health, 105(S3), 475-482., DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302504
  72. Bilgin, I. (2017). The consequences of perceived discrimination on internalizing mental health outcomes for immigrant adolescents in OECD countries: A systematic literature review. -- Disponibile online:
  73. Boerchi, D. (2014), La scelta scolastica degli studenti immigrati di seconda generazione, Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, 51, 195, 427-444.
  74. Bracken, B. A. (1997). Test TRI: test delle relazioni interpersonali. Erickson. Brunborg, G. S., Mentzoni, R. A., & Froyland, L. R. (2014). Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3, 1, 27-32., DOI: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.002
  75. Bui, H. N. (2012). Immigrant generational status and delinquency in adolescence: Segmented assimilation and racial-ethnic differences. In C. G. Coll & A. K.
  76. Marks, a cura di, The immigrant paradox in children and adolescents: Is becoming American a developmental risk? Washington: American Psychological Association, pp. 135-158.
  77. Camisasca, E., Caravita, S., Milani, L., & Di Blasio, P. (2012). The Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist-Revision1: A validation study in the Italian population.
  78. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 19(3)., DOI: 10.4473/TPM19.3.4
  79. Camisasca, E., Miragoli, S., Milani, L. & Di Blasio, P. (2016). Adattamento di coppia, cogenitorialita e adattamento psicologico dei figli: uno studio esplorativo. Psicologia della Salute, 2, 127-141., DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-002007
  80. Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M. D., Borraccino, A., Lazzeri, G., Charrier, L. & Caplan, S. E. (2007). Relations Among Loneliness, Social Anxiety, and Problema t i c Internet Use. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 234-242.
  81. Caplan, S., Williams, D. & Yee, N. (2009). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being among MMO players. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 6, 1312-1319.
  82. Regalia, C., & Giuliani, C. (2014). Cosi lontani, cosi vicini. La prospettiva psicosociale nello studio delle famiglie migranti. In AA.VV, Le famiglie di fronte alle sfide dell’immigrazione, Trento: Erikson, pp.153-179. Rehbein, F., Psych, G., Kleimann, M., Mediasci, G., & Mosle, T. (2010). Prevalence
  83. and risk factors of video game dependency in adolescence: results of a German nationwide survey. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 3, 269-277.
  84. Santagati, M., & Ongini, V. (2016). Alunni con cittadinanza non italiana. La scuola multiculturale nei contesti locali. Rapporto nazionale As 2014/15. Milano: Fondazione ISMU.
  85. Skoric, M. M., Teo, L. L .C., & Neo, R. L. (2009). Children and Video Games: addiction, engagement, and scholastic achievement. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 5, 567-572.
  86. Snodgrass, J. G, Dengah, H. J., Lacy, M.G. & Fagan, J. (2013). A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: Achievement, social, and immersion factors on the context of culture. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50, 2, 235-262., DOI: 10.1177/1363461513487666
  87. Stevens, G. W., & Vollebergh, W. A. (2008). Mental health in migrant children. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 49, 3, 276-294.
  88. Stinchfield, R. (2000). Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(2-3), 153-173., DOI: 10.1023/A:1009428913972
  89. Triberti, S., Milani, L., Villani, D., Grumi, S., Peracchia, S., Curcio, G., & Riva, G. (2018). What matters is when you play: investigating the relationship between video games addiction and time spent playing over specific day phases. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 8, 185-188.
  90. Tsitsika, A., Critselis, E., Louizou, A., Janikian, M., Freskou, A., Marangou, E., et al. (2011). Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: A casecontrol study. The Scientific World Journal, 11, 866- 874.
  91. Valtolina, G. G., & Colombo, C. (2012). La ricerca sui ricongiungimenti familiari: una rassegna. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, 49, 185, 129-144.
  92. Valtolina, G. G. (2013). La prospettiva psicologica: identita, appartenenza, cittadinanza. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, 50, 189, 66-81.
  93. Valtolina, G. G. (2014). L’utilizzo delle strategie di coping nei minori stranieri immigrati. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, 51, 195, 445-454.
  94. Valtolina, G. G., Boerchi, D. (2019). L’inserimento socio-lavorativo dei minori stranieri non accompagnati in Italia. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, 56, 58-72.
  95. Van Rooij, A. J., Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., Shorter, G. W., Schoenmakers, M. T., & Van de Mheen, D. (2014). The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3, 3, 157-165., DOI: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.013
  96. Verkuyten, M. (1998). Perceived discrimination and self-esteem among ethnic minority adolescents, Journal of Social Psychology, 138, 4, 479-493., DOI: 10.1080/00224549809600402
  97. Volpi, B. (2017). Genitori digitali. Bologna: il Mulino. Walsh, S., Shulman, S., & Maurer, O. (2008). Immigration distress, mental health status and coping among young immigrants: A 1-year follow-up study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 5, 371-384.
  98. Walther, B., Morgenstern, M., & Hanewinkel, R. (2012). Co-occurrence of addictive behaviors: Personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming. European Addiction Research, 18, 4, 167-174., DOI: 10.1159/000335662
  99. Wang, C. W., Ho, R. T., Chan, C. L., & Tse, S. (2015). Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: Trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 32-35.
  100. AESVI (2017). I videogiochi in Italia nel 2017. -- Disponibile online:
  101. Wasserstein, R. L, & Lazar, N. A. (2016) The ASA’s Statement onp-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose. The American Statistician, 70, 2, 129-133., DOI: 10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108
  102. Wenzel, H. G., Bakken, I. J., Johansson, A., Gotestam, K. G., & Oren, A. (2009). Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: Self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems. Psychological Reports, 105, 3, 1237-1247., DOI: 10.2466/PR0.105.F.1237-1247
  103. Winnicott, D. W. (1993). Talking To Parents. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  104. Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244.
  105. Young, K. S., & Rodgers, R. C. (1998, April). Internet addiction: Personality traits associated with its development. In 69th annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (pp. 40-50).
  106. Zanfrini, L. (2016). Introduzione alla sociologia delle migrazioni. Roma: Laterza.
  107. Cristini, F., Scacchi, L., Perkins, D. D., Bless, K. D., & Vieno, A. (2015). Drug use among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents: immigrant paradox, family and peer influences. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 25, 6, 531-548.

Luca Milani, Giovanni Giulio Valtolina, Diego Boerchi, Technological addiction and developmental risk: A comparison between Italian and migrant children and adolescents in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 1/2020, pp. 191-220, DOI:10.3280/RIP2020-001009


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content