Click here to download

Social dumping in the European road haulage sector: a journey between cost differentials and letterbox companies.
Journal Title: GIORNALE DI DIRITTO DEL LAVORO E DI RELAZIONI INDUSTRIALI  
Author/s: Giulia Frosecchi 
Year:  2020 Issue: 167 Language: Italian 
Pages:  28 Pg. 543-570 FullText PDF:  438 KB
DOI:  10.3280/GDL2020-167004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The essay reconstructs some of the main dynamics that characterize subordinate employment in the road haulage sector in the European Union, relating them to social dumping. The Author reflects on wage differentials in EU countries and deals with the issue of letterbox companies, notably widespread in the road haulage sector, by assessing the relevant EU normative frame-work in order to identify inconsistencies and shortcomings. In conclusion, the essay reviews the techniques developed by the European legislator to contrast social dumping, which are ap-plicable also to the sector at issue, with particular attention to the coordination of the inspection services.
Keywords: Road haulage; Social dumping; Transnational posting of workers; Letterbox com-panies; Labour inspection cooperation; Mobility Package I.

  1. Allamprese A. (2018). Strumenti di contrasto al dumping nei settori della logistica e del trasporto merci. In: Allamprese A., Bonardi, O., a cura di, Logistica e Lavoro. QRGL, 3.
  2. Allamprese A., Borelli S., Morsa M., a cura di (2020). L’Autorité éuropéenne du travail. Bruxelles: Bruylant Edition.
  3. Allamprese A., Borelli S., Orlandini G. (2019). La nuova direttiva sul distacco transnazionale. Problemi di diritto sociale europeo e internazionale. RGL: 141 ss.
  4. Bano F. (2015). La territorialità del diritto. Distacco transnazionale di manodopera a basso costo. LD: 583 ss.
  5. Bednarowicz B., Zwanenburg A., eds. (2019). Cross-Border Employment and Social Rights in the EU Road Transport Sector. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.
  6. Bernaciak M. (2012). Social dumping: political catchphrase or threat to labour standards? Bruxelles: ETUI Working Paper.06.
  7. Bernaciak M. (2014). Social dumping and the EU integration process. Bruxelles: ETUI Working Paper.06.
  8. Berntsen L., Lillie N. (2015). Social dumping at work: uses and abuses of the posted work framework in the EU. Bruxelles: ETUI Policy Brief, 7.
  9. Birkmose H.S., Neville M., Sørensen K. E., eds. (2019). Abuse of Companies. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International B.V.
  10. Bogani F. (2013). Una comunità su gomma. Un’indagine etnografica del mestiere del camionista. Lares, 79: 225 ss.
  11. Borelli S. (2018). Appunti e idee per il contrasto delle letterbox companies In: Allamprese A., Bonardi O., a cura di, Logistica e Lavoro. QRGL, 3.
  12. Borelli S. (2019). “Which way I ought to go from here?” The European Labour Authority in the internal market regulation. In: Borelli S., Guazzarotti A., a cura di, Labour Mobility and Transnational Solidarity in the European Union. Napoli: Jovene Editore.
  13. Borelli S., Orlandini G. (2019). Appunti sulla nuova legislazione sociale europea. La direttiva sul distacco transnazionale e la direttiva sulla trasparenza. QG, 4.
  14. Bruun N., Lorcher K., Schoemann I., eds. (2014). The Economic and Financial Crisis and Collective Labour Law. Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing.
  15. Caruso B., Fontana G. (2015). Lavoro e diritti sociali nella crisi europea. Un confronto fra costituzionalisti e giuslavoristi. Bologna: il Mulino.
  16. Comité National Routier (2016). Comparative study of employment and pay conditions of international lorry drivers in Europe. CNR European Studies.
  17. Cremers J. (2014). Letter-box companies and abuse of the posting rules: how the primacy of economic freedoms and weak enforcement give rise to social dumping. Bruxelles: ETUI Policy Brief, 5.
  18. Cremers, J. (2011). In search of cheap labour in Europe - Working and living conditions of posted workers. Bruxelles: CLR Studies.
  19. Defossez A. (2018). Directive 2014/67/EU on the enforcement of Directive 96/71/EC concerning the posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services. In Ales E., Bell M., Deinert O., Robin-Olivier S., eds., International and European Labour Law. Article-by-Article Commentary. Baden-Baden: Beck-Hart-Nomos.
  20. ETUC (2016). A Hunters Game: How Policy Can Change to Spot and Sink Letterbox-Type Practices. Retrieved October 10, 2017. -- Testo disponibile al sito: https://www.etuc.org/publications/hunters-game-how-policy-can-change-spot-and-sink-letterbox-type-practices#.Wfo8Hlu0PIV (consultato il 5.6.2020).
  21. ETUC (2020). ETUC note on Posted Workers and the COVID-19 outbreak. 3.4.2020.
  22. Even Z., Houweling R., Zwanenburg e Houwerzijl M. (2019). The analysis of private international law in the EU with regard to EU cross-border road transport: competency and applicable law. In: Bednarowicz B., Zwanenburg A., eds., Cross-Border Employment and Social Rights in the EU Road Transport Sector. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 45 ss.
  23. Frosecchi G. (2018). Distacco, cabotaggio, trasporto internazionale: un puzzle ancora da comporre. In: Allamprese A., Bonardi O., a cura di, Logistica e Lavoro. QRGL, 3.
  24. Fuchs M. (2018). Posting. The legal panorama of European labour and social security law. RIDL, I: 3 ss.
  25. Giubboni S. (2017). Diritto del lavoro europeo. Una introduzione critica. Milano: Wolters Kluwer Italia.
  26. Giubboni S. (2019). Il diritto sociale europeo alla ricerca dell’autonomia perduta: opportunità e rischi. PS, 1: 3 ss.
  27. Giubboni S., Orlandini G. (2019). Mobilità del lavoro e dumping sociale in Europa, oggi. DLRI: 907 ss.
  28. Hastings T., Cremers J. (2017). Developing an Approach for Tackling Letterbox Companies. Luxembourg: Study for the European Commission.
  29. Izzi D. (2018). Lavoro negli appalti e dumping salariale. Torino: Giappichelli.
  30. Kwasiborski P. (2018). Social Dumping on the EU internal market – a real challenge for the EU integration process? In: Grzeszczak R., ed., Renationalisation of the Intergration Process in the Internal Market of the European Union. Baden Baden: Nomos.
  31. Lazzeroni L. (2017). Trasporti sovranazionali e diritti sociali: per una mobilità sostenibile. LD: 37 ss.
  32. Lhernould J-P., Coucheir M., Fisker S., Madsen P.G., Voss E. (2016). Study on wage setting systems and minimum rates of pay applicable to posted workers in accordance with Directive 96/71/EC in a selected number of Member States and sectors. Study for European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.
  33. Lo Faro A. (2008). Diritti sociali e libertà economiche del mercato interno: considerazioni minime in margine ai casi Laval e Viking. LD: 63 ss.
  34. Loffredo A. (2018). Democrazia aziendale, imprese transnazionali e dumping sociale. Napoli: Editoriale Scientifica.
  35. Lyon-Caen (2011). A proposito del dumping sociale. LD: 7 ss.
  36. Marocco M. (2017). Il salario minimo legale nel prisma europeo: prospettive per l’Italia. DLRI: 337 ss.
  37. McGauran K. (2016). The impact of letterbox companies on labour rights and public revenue. Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO).
  38. McGauran K. (2020). Ending regulatory avoidance through the use of letterbox companies. Bruxelles: ETUI Policy Brief, 3.
  39. Murgo M. (2018). Sulla vincolatività del certificato E101 (e A1) ottenuto in maniera fraudolenta. DRI: 1285.
  40. Nava M. (2004). L’Allargamento dell’Unione Europea: questioni finanziarie, di competitività e di crescita. LD: 219 ss.
  41. Orlandini G. (2008). Autonomia collettiva e libertà economiche nell'ordinamento europeo: alla ricerca dell'equilibrio perduto in un mercato aperto e in libera concorrenza. DLRI: 237 ss.
  42. Orlandini G. (2012). Il rapporto di lavoro con elementi di transnazionalità. WP CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”.IT, 137/2012. -- Testo disponibile al sito: http://csdle.lex.unict.it/Archive/WP/WP%20CSDLE%20M%20DAntona/WP%20CSDLE%20M%20DAntona-IT/20120117-070600_orlandini_137-2012itpdf.pdf (consultato il 6.6.2020).
  43. Orlandini G. (2013). Mercato unico dei servizi e tutela del lavoro. Roma: Franco Angeli.
  44. Orlandini G. (2019). Il dumping salariale nell’Unione europea: nuovi scenari e vecchie problematiche. In: Borelli S., Guazzarotti A., a cura di, Labour Mobility and Transnational Solidarity in the European Union. Napoli: Jovene.
  45. Pascucci P. (2019). Giusta retribuzione e contratti di lavoro, oggi. DLRI, 1: 59 ss.
  46. Policy Department A – Economic and Scientific Policy, ed. (2015). Employment Conditions in the International Road Haulage Sector. Study for the European Parliament’s Committee on Employment and Social Affairs.
  47. Policy Department B – Structural and Cohesion Policies, ed. (2017). Research for TRAN Committee - Road Transport Hauliers in the EU: Social and Working Conditions (Update of the 2013 study). Study for the European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism.
  48. Ratti L. (2019). The EU fundamental freedoms in the light of cross-border road transport. In: Bednarowicz B., Zwanenburg A., eds., Cross-Border Employment and Social Rights in the EU Road Transport Sector. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 17 ss.
  49. Ryszka J. (2016). “Social dumping” and “letterbox companies” – interdependent or mutually exclusive concepts in European union law?. In: XXXVI Polish Yearbook of International Law, 209 ss.
  50. Scarpelli F. (1999). Esternalizzazioni e diritto del lavoro: il lavoratore non è una merce. DRI: 351 ss.
  51. Schulten T., Mueller T. (2019). What’s in a name? From minimum wages to living wages in Europe. Transfer, 25(3): 267 ss.
  52. Sciarra S. (2014). Social law in the wake of the crisis. WP CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”.INT, 108/2014. -- Testo disponibile al sito: http://csdle.lex.unict.it/docs/workingpapers/Social-law-in-the-wake-of-the-crisis/5024.aspx (consultato il 6.6.2020).
  53. Sciarra S. (2020). Eppur si muove? La strategia della Commissione per rilanciare l’Europa sociale. Freedom, Security & Justice: European Legal Studies, 1: 1 ss.
  54. Sgroi A. (2011). Il distacco di lavoratori nel quadro del regolamento CEE n. 1408/71 e del regolamento CE n. 883/2004. In: Foglia R., Cosio R., a cura di, Il diritto del lavoro nell’Unione europea. Milano: Giuffrè, 199 ss.
  55. Simurkova P., Poliak M., Hernandez S. (2018). Uniform Market Conditions in Road Freights Transport. SJTL, 9: 94 ss.
  56. Sørensen K E. (2015). The fights against letterbox companies in the internal market. CMLR, 52: 85 ss.
  57. Szydlo M. (2018). Cross-border conversion of companies under freedom of establishment: Polbud and beyond. CMLR, 55: 1549 ss.
  58. Traversa E. (2018). Transferable cross-border tax rules to cross-border social security. In: Buelen W., ed., Putting an end to cross-border social security fraud and abuse. Brussels: European Federation of Building and Woodworkers, 72 ss.
  59. TRT Trasporti e Territorio (2018). Overview of existing pricing components that influence the competitiveness between road and rail freight transport – Final Report. Commissioned by Eusalp AG4 Mobility.
  60. Tullini P. (2018). Concorrenza ed equità nel mercato europeo: una scommessa difficile (ma necessaria) per il diritto del lavoro. RIDL, I: 199 ss.
  61. Tursi A. (2018). La giurisprudenza uni-europea sul rapporto tra libertà economiche e diritto del lavoro: discerni oportet. DRI: 835 ss.
  62. Verschueren H., Bednarowicz B. (2019). The EU Coordination of the Social Security Systems of the Member States and its applicability in cross-boder road transport. In: Bednarowicz B., Zwanenburg A., eds., Cross-Border Employment and Social Rights in the EU Road Transport Sector. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 113 ss.
  63. Videbæk Munkholm N. (2019). Abuse of Companies and Posting of Workers. In: Birkmose H.S., Neville M., Sørensen K.E., eds., Abuse of Companies. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International B.V, 343 ss.
  64. Zahn R. (2013). European enlargement and the economic crisis: impact and lasting effects. Bruxelles: ETUI Working Paper.01.

Giulia Frosecchi, Social dumping in the European road haulage sector: a journey between cost differentials and letterbox companies. in "GIORNALE DI DIRITTO DEL LAVORO E DI RELAZIONI INDUSTRIALI " 167/2020, pp. 543-570, DOI:10.3280/GDL2020-167004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content