Click here to download

Resilience as learning
Journal Title: PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro 
Author/s: Marco Moretti, Manuele Marsili 
Year:  2019 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  25 Pg. 58-82 FullText PDF:  338 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PRI2019-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The article explores the theme of resilience from an interdisciplinary, psycho-socio-economic point of view, according to the systemic paradigm. After a first distinction between the resilience of closed and open systems, two approaches to resilience are outlined: conservative and transformative. In order to put order between the various constructs of resilience and to highlight which interrelationships there are between these processes, the modes of intervention adopted in response to shocks and the protective factors that favour resilience despite vulnerabilities and, in particular, the "sense of coherence" are investigated. The authors, therefore, propose a positive systemic model of resilience based on learning in which four levels of resilience are outlined, of which the conservative and transformative levels are considered distinct forms of learning, and a higher, and rather rare, level of transmutational or evolutionary resilience is identified. This model aims not only to connect, organize and make sense of the different concepts of resilience, but also provides for the possibility of accessing higher levels of the resilience scale. It could be a stimulus to the policy maker’s re-evaluation and reorganisation of current governance models. In this regard, the authors consider that further research is needed, in particular: to investigate the different ways of access from lower to higher levels of resilience, as well as the possible declinations of the proposed model into normative models. As today challenges increasingly take the form of threats of a global nature, they impose on humanity an epistemic change and the development of a resilience that can foster a sense of common identity based on the consciousness of the community of human destiny.
Keywords: Resilience, protective factors, sense of coherence, learning, community of destiny.

  1. Adger W.N. (2000) “Social and ecological resilience: are they related?”, Progress in Human Geography, 24(3), pp. 347-364.
  2. Antonovsky A. (1979) Health, Stress and Coping, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
  3. Antonovsky A. (1987a) Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well, Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco.
  4. Antonovsky A. (1987b) “Health promoting factors at work: The sense of coherence”. In Cooper C.L., Kalimo R., El-Batawi M. (Eds.) Psychosocial factors at work and their relation to health, pp. 153-167, WHO: Geneva.
  5. Antonovsky A., Sourani T. (1988) “Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation”, Journal of Marriage and Family, 50(1), pp. 79-92.
  6. Assagioli R. (1988) Lo sviluppo transpersonale, Casa Editrice Astrolabio: Roma.
  7. Assagioli (2011) Dalla coppia all’umanità. Introduzione alla psicosintesi inter-individuale, L’Uomo Edizioni: Firenze.
  8. Bachelet M.J., Becchetti L., Pisani P. (2016) “Eudaimonic happiness as a leading health indicator”, AICCON Working Papers 150.
  9. Barnard A. (2016) “Sense of coherence: a distinct perspective on financial well-being”, The South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 19(4), pp. 647-660.
  10. Bateson G. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Chandler Publishing Company: San Francisco. Tr.it. Verso un’ecologia della mente, Adelphi Edizioni: Milano.
  11. Bauman Z. (2001) The Individualized Society, Polity Press: Cambridge. Trad.it. La società individualizzata, il Mulino: Bologna.
  12. Becchetti L., Bachelet M.J., Pisani P. (2019) “Poor eudaimonic subjective wellbeing as a mortality risk factor”, Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, 36(1), pp. 245-272.
  13. Beinhocker E.D. (2006) The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics, Harvard Business School Press: Boston.
  14. Bonfiglio N.S., Renati R., Farneti P.M (2012) La resilienza tra rischio e opportunità, Alpes Italia: Roma.
  15. Briguglio L., Cordina G., Bugeja S., Farrugia N. (2006) Conceptualizing and measuring economic resilience, Department of Economics, University of Malta.
  16. Brown K. (2014) “Global environmental change I: A social turn for resilience?”, Progress in Human Geography, 38(1), pp. 107-117.
  17. Caldera Sánchez A., Gori F. (2016) “Can Reforms Promoting Growth Increase Financial Fragility?: An Empirical Assessment”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, 1340.
  18. Caldera Sánchez A., Alain de Serres de A., Gori F., Hermansen M., Röhn O. (2017) “Strengthening economic resilience: Insights from the post-1970 record of severe recessions and financial crises”, OECD Economic Policy Papers, 20.
  19. Cavallotti C. (2008) “Resilienza” in Enciclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica, Treccani Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana: Roma.
  20. Ceruti M. (2018) “Una comunità di destino nel tempo della complessità”, Educazione sentimentale, 30(2), pp. 17-22.
  21. Chiang H.H., Lee T.SH. (2018) “Family relations, sense of coherence, happiness and perceived health in retired Taiwanese: Analysis of a conceptual model”, Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 18(1), pp. 154-160.
  22. Colucci M., Sanfilippo M. (2010) Guida allo studio dell’emigrazione italiana, Sette Città: Viterbo.
  23. Connor K.M., Davidson J.R.T., Lee L.C. (2003) “Spirituality, Resilience, and Anger in Survivors of Violent Trauma: A Community Survey”, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16(5), pp. 487-494.
  24. Conz, E., Magnani, G. (2020) “A dynamic perspective on the resilience of firms: A systematic literature review and a framework for future research”, European Management Journal, 38(3), pp. 400-412.
  25. Dyer J.G., McGuiness T.M. (1996) “Resilience: Analysis of the Concept”, Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 10(05), pp. 276-82.
  26. Eriksson M., Lindström B. (2006) “Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review”, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60(5), pp. 376-381.
  27. Eriksson M., Lindström B. (2008) “A salutogenic interpretation of the Ottawa Charter”, Health Promotion International, 23(2), pp. 190-199
  28. Feldt T., Kinnunen U., Mauno S. (2000) “A mediational model of sense of coherence in the work context: A one-year follow-up study”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), pp. 461-476.
  29. Folke C., Carpenter S., Elmqvist T., Gunderson L., Holling C.S., Walker B. (2002) “Resilience and Sustainable Development: Building Adaptive Capacity in a World of Transformations”, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(5), pp. 437-440.
  30. Füssel H.M. (2007) “Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research”, Global Environmental Change, 17(2), pp. 155-167.
  31. Galtung J. (1985) Gandhi Today, International Peace Research Institute: Oslo. Tr.it. Gandhi oggi, Edizioni Gruppo Abele: Torino.
  32. Gordon J.E. (1978) Structures, Penguin Books: Harmondsworth.
  33. Gordon K.A. (1995) “The self-concept and motivational patterns of resilient African American high school students”, Journal of Black Psychology, 21(3), pp. 239-255.
  34. Graeser S. (2011) “Salutogenic factors for mental health promotion in work settings and organizations”, International Review of Psychiatry, 23(6), pp. 508-515.
  35. Griffith J.L., Griffith M.E. (2002) Encountering the Sacred in Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press: New York.
  36. Ingrosso M. (2003) Senza benessere sociale. Nuovi rischi e attese di qualità della vita nell’era planetaria, FrancoAngeli: Milano.
  37. Ingrosso M. (2016) “Verso nuove definizioni di salute e cura del bene comune”, Riflessioni Sistemiche, 15, pp. 50-64.
  38. IPCC (2012) Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, -- https://www.ipcc.ch/report/managing-the-risks-of-extreme- events-and-disasters-to-advance-climate-change-adaptation/.
  39. Johnson J.L., Wiechelt S.A. (2004) “Introduction to the Special Issue on Resilience”, Substance Use and Misuse, 39(5), pp. 657-670.
  40. Kaplan H.B. (1999) Toward an Understanding of Resilience: A Critical Review of Definitions and Models, in Glantz M.D., Johnson J.L. (Eds.) Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum: New York.
  41. Keeney B.P. (1983) Aesthetic of Change, The Guiford Press: New York. Tr.it. L’estetica del cambiamento, Casa Editrice Astrolabio: Roma.
  42. Kendra J.M., Wachtendorf T. (2003) “Elements of resilience after the world trade center disaster: reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre”, Disasters, 27(1), pp. 37-53.
  43. Keyes C.L.M. (1998) “Social Well-being”, Social Psychology Quarterly 61(2), pp. 121-140.
  44. Kimhi S., Shamai M. (2004) “Community resilience and the impact of stress: Adult response to Israel’s withdrawal from Lebanon”, Community Psychology, 32(4), pp. 439-451.
  45. Laing D. (1967) The politics of Experience, Penguin Books: Harmondsworth. Tr.it. La politica dell’esperienza, Feltrinelli Editore: Milano.
  46. Laloux F. (2014) Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness, Nelson Parker: Kindle Edition. Tr.it. Reinventare le organizzazioni. Come creare organizzazioni ispirate al prossimo stadio della consapevolezza umana, Guerini Next: Milano.
  47. Luthar S.S., Cicchetti D., Becker B. (2000) “The Construct of Resilience: A Critical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Work”, Child Development, 71(3), pp. 543-562.
  48. Luthar S.S. (2003) Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities, Cambridge University Press: New York.
  49. Mancuso S. (2017) Plant Revolution: Le piante hanno già inventato il nostro futuro, Giunti Editore: Firenze.
  50. Manghi S. (2004) La conoscenza ecologica. Attualità di Gregory Bateson. Raffaello Cortina Editore: Milano.
  51. Maslow A.H. (1962) Toward a Psychology of Being, Van Nostrand Company: New York. Tr.it. Verso una psicologia dell’essere, Casa Editrice Astrolabio: Roma.
  52. Matteucci N., Vieira Lima S. (2016) “Women and Happiness”, in Bruni L., Porta P., (eds.) (2015), Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Happiness and Quality of Life, Edward Elgar Publishing: London.
  53. McCubbin, Thomson, McCubbin (1996), Family Assessment: Resiliency, Coping, and Adaptation Inventories for Research and Practice, University of Wisconsin System: Madison.
  54. Melucci A. (1995) The Process of Collective Identity, in Johnston H., Klandermans B. (Eds.), Social Movements and Culture, University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, pp. 41-63.
  55. Mittelmark, M.B., Sagy S., Eriksson M., Bauer G.F., Pelikan J.M., Lindström B., Espnes G.A. (Eds.) (2017) The Handbook of Salutogenesis, Springer Nature: Cham.
  56. Moretti M., Poggioli D. (2015) Manuale di costellazioni familiari individuali, Alpes Italia: Roma.
  57. Moretti M. (2019) “Il potenziale del gruppo umano”, Rivista Psicosintesi, 32, pp. 20-23.
  58. Morin E. (2001) L’Humanité de l’humanité. L’identité humaine, Editions du Seuille: Paris. Tr.it L’identità umana, Raffaello Cortina: Milano.
  59. Moscovici S. (1989) Le rappresentazioni sociali, il Mulino: Bologna.
  60. OCSE (2017) OECD Economic Outlook, Vol. 2, OCSE Publishing: Parigi.
  61. Park S., Marshall N.A., Jakku E., Dowd A.M., Howden S.M., Mendham E.K., Fleming A. (2012) “Informing adaptation responses to climate change through theories of transformation”, Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 115-126.
  62. Richardson G.E., Neiger B., Jensen S., Kumpfer K. (1990) “The resiliency Model”, Health Education, 21(6), pp. 33-39.
  63. Richardson G.E. (2002) “The Metatheory of Resilience and Resiliency”, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), pp. 307-321.
  64. Robertson B.J. (2015) Holacracy: The New Management System for a Rapidly Changing World, Henry Holt and Company: New York. Tr.it. Holacracy. Come superare la gerarchia, Guerini Next: Milano.
  65. Rotmans J., Kemp R., van Asselt M., Geels F., Verbong G.P.J., Molendijk K., van Notter P. (2000) Transitions and Transition Management: the case of a low-emission energy supply, ICIS-Report: Maastricht.
  66. Rutter M. (1985) “Resilience in the Face of Adversity: Protective Factors and Resistance to Psychiatric Disorder”, British Journal of Psychiatry, 147(6), pp. 598-611.
  67. Sabatino, M. (2016) “Economic crisis and resilience: Resilient capacity and competitiveness of the enterprises”, Journal of Business Research, 69(5), pp. 1924-1927.
  68. Sagy S., Antonovsky A. (1992) “The Family Sense of Coherence and the Retirement Transition”, Journal of Marriage and Family, 54(4), pp. 983-993.
  69. Siegel D. (2010) Mindsight. The New Science of Personal Transformation, Bantam Books: New York. Tr.it. Mindsight. La nuova scienza della trasformazione personale, Raffaello Cortina Editore: Milano.
  70. Simon H.A. (1969) The Sciences of the Artificial, MIT Press: Cambridge. Tr.it. Le scienze dell’artificiale, ISEDI: Milano.
  71. Sonn C.C., Fisher A.T. (1998) “Sense of community: Community resilient responses to oppression and change”, Journal of community psychology, 26(5), pp. 475-472.
  72. Suominen S., Helenius H., Blomberg H., Uutela A. and Koskenvuo M. (2001) “Sense of coherence as a predictor of subjective state of health: Results of 4 years of follow-up of adults”, Journal of psychosomatic research, 50(2), pp. 77-86.
  73. United Nations (2004) Living with Risk: A Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva: Switzerland.
  74. UNDP (1994) Human Development Report 1994: New Dimensions of Human Security, Oxford University Press: New York, -- http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-1994.
  75. Visscher P.K. (2003) “How self-organization evolves”, Nature, 421(6925), pp. 799-800.
  76. Von Bertalanffy L. (1968) General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, George Braziller: New York. Tr. it. Teoria generale dei sistemi. Fondamenti, sviluppo, applicazioni, Mondadori Editore: Milano.
  77. Ying Y.W., Akutsu P.D. (1997) “Psychological adjustment of Southeast Asian refugees: The contribution of sense of coherence”, Journal of Community Psychology, 25(2), pp. 125-139.
  78. Walker B., Holling C.S., Carpenter S.R., Kinzig A. (2004) “Adaptability and Transformability in Social-ecological Systems”, Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.
  79. Walker B. (2013) “Cosa è la Resilienza?”, Il Sole 24 Ore, 8 luglio, -- https://st.ilsole24ore.com/art/economia/2013-07-08/cosa-resilienza-152217.shtml.
  80. Walsh F. (2006) Strengthening Family Resilience, The Guilford Press: New York. Tr.it La resilienza familiare, Raffaello Cortina Editore: Milano.
  81. Walsh B. (2013) “Adapt or Die: Why the environmental buzzword of 2013 will be resilience”, Time: Science and Space, 8 January, -- http://science.time.com/2013/01/08/adapt-or-die-why-the-environmental-buzzword-of-2013-will-be-resilience/#ixzz2JeE6rFwE.
  82. Watzlawick P., Weakland J.H., Fisch R. (1974) Change. Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Solution. W.W. Norton & Company: New York. Tr.it. Change. Sulla formazione e la soluzione dei problemi. Astrolabio: Roma.
  83. Werner E.E., Smith R.S. (1982) Vulnerable but Invincible: A Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth, McGraw-Hill: New York.
  84. Werner E.E. (1993) “Risk, Resilience and Recovery”, Deveolpment and Psychopatology, 5(8), pp. 503-515.
  85. Wickens L., Greeff A.P. (2006) “Sense of Family Coherence and the Utilization of Resources by First-Year Students”, The American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(5), pp. 427-441.
  86. Wilber K. (1981) No Boundary. Eastern and Western Approaches to Personal Growth, Shambala: Boulder. Trad.it. Oltre i confini. La dimensione transpersonale in psicologia, Cittadella Editrice: Assisi.
  87. Wilson S., Pearson L., Kashima Y. (2013) “Separating adaptive maintenance (resilience) and transformative capacity of social ecological systems”, Ecology and Society, 18(1), 22.

Marco Moretti, Manuele Marsili, Resilience as learning in "PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro" 2/2019, pp. 58-82, DOI:10.3280/PRI2019-002004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content