Click here to download

The influence of Mindfulness and General Wellbeing in clinical treatment of tobacco smokers enrolled in a cessation program. A short and long-term evaluation
Author/s: Olimpia Pino, Giuliano Giucastro, Roberta Crespi 
Year:  2020 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  22 Pg. 849-870 FullText PDF:  279 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2020-003004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Cigarette smoking is a complex phenomenon and its consequences for hu-man body are increasingly known. Basing on the results from previous research on relationship between Mindfulness and smoking abstinence in which it emer-ged that subjects who had high levels of dispositional Mindfulness had a greater chance of success in a smoking cessation program, the aim of the present study was to extend the analysis in a larger group of individuals subjected to pharma-cological treatment and motivational counselling, which were monitored both at the first 24-h of complete abstention and at the follow-up. The study involved 53 individuals who participated to a smoke cessation program completing the Fa-gerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Abstinence was recorded in several sessions also through the quantitative determination of the value of carbon monoxide on the expired air (CO) from the lungs that contribu-tes to a greater objectivity of the outcome measure. Data did not confirm the role of Mindfulness as a predictor of abstinence. MAAS and GHQ-12 scores did not result in relationship with the outcome of nicotine cessation program. Therefore, Mindfulness construct would seem not to be a predictor of success in a smoking cessation program. The use of more sensitive tools in detecting the Mindfulness trait could lead to appropriate results as a more structured cognitive behavioural treatment could be contributing to support habitual smokers quit.
Keywords: Nicotine addiction, tobacco addiction, smoking, smoke cessation programs, mindfulness.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Washington, D.C.: APA. Trad. it.: DSM-5. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali. Quinta edizione. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2014.
  2. Baer, R.A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27-45.
  3. Baker, T.B., Piper, M.E., McCarthy, D.E., Majeskie, M.R., & Fiore, M.C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111(1), 33., DOI: 10.1037/0033295X.111.1.33
  4. Baker, M., & Wurgler, J. (2004). Appearing and disappearing dividends: the link to catering incentives. Journal of Financial. Economics, 73(2), 271-288.
  5. Beirut, L. J., Madden, P. A., Breslau, N., Johnson, E. O., Hatsukami, D., Pomerleau, O. F., Swan, G. E., Rutter, J., Fox, L., Fugman, D., Goate, A.M., Hinrichs, A.L., Konvicka, K., Martin, N.G., Montgomery, G.W., Saccone, N.L. Saccone, S.F., Wang, J.C., Chaise, G.A., Rice, J.P., & Ballinger, D.G. (2006). Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(1), 24-35.
  6. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: Existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 191-202.
  7. Bevins, R.A., & Palmatier, M.I. (2004). Extending the role of associative learning processes in nicotine addiction. Behavioral and Cognitive. Neuroscience Reviews, 3(3), 143-158.
  8. Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z.V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230-241.
  9. Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G.A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
  10. Brewer, J.A., Mallik, S., Babuscio, T.A., Nich, C., Johnson, H.E., Deleone, C.M., Minnix-Cotton, C.A., Byrne, S.A., Kober, H., Weinstein, A.J., Carroll, K.M., & Rounsaville, B.J. (2011). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 72-80.
  11. Brown, K.W., & Ryan R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
  12. Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J.D., Forman, E.M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15, 204-223., DOI: 10.1177/1073191107311467
  13. Chiesa, A. (2013). The difficulty of defining mindfulness: current thought and critical issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 255-268.
  14. Coffey, K.A., & Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13(2), 79-91.
  15. Davidson, R.J., & Kaszniak, A.W. (2015). Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. American Psychologist, 70(7), 581.
  16. Davis, J.M., Fleming, M.F., Bonus, K.A., & Baker, T.B. (2007). A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7 (1), 1-7., DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-7-2
  17. De Souza, I.C.W., de Barros, V.V., Gomide, H.P., Miranda, T.C.M., de Paula Menezes, V., Kozasa, E.H., & Noto, A.R. (2015). Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of smoking: a systematic literature review. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(3), 129-140.
  18. Doll, R., Peto, R., Wheatley, K., Gray, R., & Sutherland, I. (1994). Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ, 309(6959), 901-911.
  19. Fidler, J.A., & West, R. (2009). Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(10), 1182-1188.
  20. File, S.E., Cheeta, S., & Kenny, P. J. (2000). Neurobiological mechanisms by which nicotine mediates different types of anxiety. European Journal of Pharmacology, 393(1-3), 231-236., DOI: 10.1016/S00142999(99)00889-4
  21. Free, C., Phillips, G., Galli, L., Watson, L., Felix, L., Edwards, P., Patel, V., & Haines, A. (2013). The effectiveness of mobile-health technology-based health behaviour change or disease management interventions for health care consumers: A systematic review. PLoS Medicine, 10(1), e1001362.
  22. Froeliger, B., Mathew, A.R., McConnell, P.A. et al. (2017). Restructuring reward mechanisms in nicotine addiction: a pilot fMRI study of Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for cigarette smokers, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,, DOI: 10.1155/2017/7018014
  23. Gellert, C., Schoettker, B., & Brenner, H. (2012). Smoking and all-cause mortality in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(11), 837-844.
  24. Giovannini, C., Giromini, L., Bonalume, L., Tagini, A., Lang, M., & Amadei, G. (2014). The Italian five facet mindfulness questionnaire: a contribution to its validity and reliability. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(3), 415-423.
  25. Giucastro, G., Pelosi, A. & Pino, O. (2016). Dimensioni temperamentali ed effetti della terapia farmacologica sull’astensione dal fumo. Tabaccologia, 3, 20-28.
  26. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining Mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re) invention of Mindfulness: comment on Brown Et Al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034-1040.
  27. Heatherton, T.F., Kozlowski, L.T., Frecker, R.C. & Fagerström, K.O. (1991). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1119-1127.
  28. Japuntich, S.J., Piper, M.E., Leventhal, A.M., Bolt, D.M., & Baker, T.B. (2011). The effect of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation milestones. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 34-42., DOI: 10.1037/2332-2136.1.S.58
  29. Jha, P., Ramasundarahettige, C., Landsman, V., Rostron, B., Thun, M., Anderson, R.N., McAfee, T., & Peto, R. (2013). 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(4), 341-350.
  30. Kabat/Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness/based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.
  31. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
  32. Kannel, W.B. (1981). Update on the role of cigarette smoking in coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 101(3), 319-328., DOI: 10.1016/0002-8703(81)90197-6
  33. Lietz, M., Berges, A., Lebrun, S., Meurrens, K., Steffen, Y., Stolle, K., Schueller, J., Boue, S., Vuillaume, G., Vanscheeuwijck, P., Moehring, M., Schlage, W., De Leon, H., Hoeng, J., & Peitsch, M. (2013). Cigarette-smoke-induced atherogenic lipid profiles in plasma and vascular tissue of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are attenuated by smoking cessation. Atherosclerosis, 229(1), 86-93.
  34. MacKillop, J., Mattson, R.E., Anderson, Mackillop, E.J., Castelda, B.A. & Donovick, P.J. (2007). Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in undergraduate hazardous drinkers and controls. Journal of Study of Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 785-788.
  35. Marino, L., Latini, R., & Barbano, G. (1999). Definition of a reliable threshold value for detecting current smokers by CO measurement: Preliminary results. Communication presented at The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Second European Conference on Tobacco Addiction. London: England November 5th-26th. pp. 59.
  36. Mathis, C., Poussin, C., Weisensee, D., Gebel, S., Hengstermann, A., Sewer, A., Belcastro, V., Xiang, Y., Ansari, S., Wagner, S., Hoeng, J., & Peitsch, M. (2013). Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers. American Journal of Physiology Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 304(7): 489-503.
  37. Milton, A.L., & Everitt, B.J. (2012). The persistence of maladaptive memory: Addiction, drug memories and anti-relapse treatments. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1119-1139.
  38. Patnode, C.D., Henderson, J.T., Thompson, J.H., Senger, C.A., Fortmann, S.P., & Whitlock, E.P. (2015). Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant women: a review of reviews for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(8), 608-621.
  39. Piccinelli, M., Bisoffi, G., Bon, M.G., Cunico, L. & Tansella, M. (1993). Validity and test-retest reliability of the Italian version of the 12-item General Heath Questionnaire in general practice: a comparison between three scoring methods. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34, 198-205., DOI: 10.1016/0010-440X(93)90048-9
  40. Pino, O., Girolami, A., & Giucastro, G. (2019). Does the mindful attention awareness predict abstinence from nicotine smoking 24-h into a cessation programme? Italian Journal of Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy, 25(2), 151-164.
  41. Pino, O., Girolami, A., & Giucastro, G. (2018). Mindful attention awareness as a predictor of smoking quitting in nicotine cessation treatment: preliminary data from a pilot study. EC Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(4), 162-168.
  42. Pino, O., Giucastro, G. & Pelosi, A. (2015). Personality dimensions, smoking behavior and drug effects on nicotine dependence: evidence for predicting tobacco withdrawal. International Journal of Neuroscience and Behavior Sciences, 3 (2), 17-24.
  43. Saccone, S.F., Hinrichs, A.L., Saccone, N.L., Chase, G.A., Konvicka, K., Madden, P.A., Breslau, N., Johnson, E.O., Hatsukami, D., Pomerleau, O., Swan, G.E., Goate, A.M., Rutter, J., Bertelsen, S., Fox, L., Fugman, D., Martin, N.G., Montgomery, G.W., Wang, J.C, Ballinger, D.G., Rice, J.P., & Bierut, L.J. (2007). Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713. SNPs. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(1), 36-49.
  44. Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3-17.
  45. Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386.
  46. Smallwood, J., McSpadden, M., & Schooler, J.W. (2007). The lights are on but no one’s home: Metaawareness and the decoupling of attention when the mind wanders. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(3), 527-533., DOI: 10.3758/BF03194102
  47. Sullivan, P.F., & Kendler, K.S. (1999). The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1(Suppl_2), S51-S57., DOI: 10.1080/14622299050011811
  48. Swan, G.E., McClure, J.B., Jack, L.M., Zbikowski, S.M., Javitz, H.S., Catz, S.L., Deprey, M., Richards, J., & McAfee, T.A. (2010). Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(5), 482-490.
  49. Tang, Y-Y., Tang, R., & Posner, M.I. (2013). Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction. PNAS, 110(34), 13971-1397.
  50. Taylor, G., McNeill, A., Girling, A., Farley, A., Lindson-Hawley, N., & Aveyard, P. (2014). Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 348: g1151.
  51. Tomlinson, E.R., Yousaf, O., Vittersø, A.D. & Jones, L. (2018). Dispositional Mindfulness and psychological health: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 9, 23-43.
  52. Tronson, N.C., & Taylor, J.R. (2013). Addiction: A drug-induced disorder of memory reconsolidation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(4), 573-580.
  53. Van Dam, N.T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(7), 805-810.
  54. Veneziani, C.A., & Voci, A. (2015). The Italian adaptation of the Mindful Awareness Attention Scale and its relation with individual differences and quality of life indexes. Mindfulness, 6(2), 373-381.
  55. Vidrine, J.I., Businelle, M.S., Reitzel, L.R., Cao, Y., Cinciripini, P.M., Marcus, M. T., Li, Y., & Wetter, D.W. (2015). Coping mediates the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, affect, and depression among smokers preparing to quit. Mindfulness, 6(3), 433-443.
  56. Weik, K.E., & Sutcliffe, K.M. (2007). Managing the unexpected: resilient performance in an age of uncertainty. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
  57. Williams, J.M., Foulds, J., Dwyer, M., Order-Connors, B., Springer, M., Gadde, P., & Ziedonis, D.M. (2005). The integration of tobacco dependence treatment and tobacco-free standards into residential addictions treatment in New Jersey. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28(4), 331-340.
  58. World Health Organization. (2015). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco. Geneva: World Health Organization. --

Olimpia Pino, Giuliano Giucastro, Roberta Crespi, The influence of Mindfulness and General Wellbeing in clinical treatment of tobacco smokers enrolled in a cessation program. A short and long-term evaluation in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 3/2020, pp. 849-870, DOI:10.3280/RIP2020-003004


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content