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Less Dualisation, More Segmentation: France’s Labour Market Model in the Early 21st Century
Titolo Rivista: SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO  
Autori/Curatori: Daniel Clegg 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2021 Fascicolo: 159  Lingua: Francese 
Numero pagine:  21 P. 50-70 Dimensione file:  244 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SL2021-159003
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La Francia è stata spesso intesa, insieme alla Germania, come un caso paradigmatico di dualizzazione, con le scelte degli attori politici orientate alla competitività che guida la restrizione graduale delle protezioni sociali e occupazionali nei confronti degli outsiders. Questo articolo valuta questa interpretazione alla luce degli sviluppi del diritto del lavoro e della politica sociale francese dall’inizio del 21° secolo. In questo periodo la segmentazione è rimasta un grave problema sul mercato del lavoro francese. Anche se la crescita della quota di occupazione atipica è diminuita nel nuovo millennio, il lavoro temporaneo è diventato su una serie di indicatori più instabile e precario, e i tassi di transizione tra contratti a tempo determinato e contratti a tempo indeterminato sono rimasti estremamente bassi. Questo articolo sostiene tuttavia che nel corso del periodo né i cambiamenti istituzionali nelle politiche sociali e occupazionali né le loro dinamiche socio-politiche di fondo sono coerenti con il tradizionale modello della dualizzazione. Esso dimostra che lo smantellamento delle protezioni dell’occupazione ha avuto un impatto maggiore sui lavoratori del nucleo centrale rispetto a quelli periferici, e che il sistema di assicurazione contro la disoccupazione è diventato considerevolmente più inclusivo dei lavoratori con biografie occupazionali discontinue. Dato che l’autonomia normativa delle parti sociali - sindacati e associazioni dei datori di lavoro - è rimasta elevata nel sistema di assicurazione contro la disoccupazione fino a poco tempo fa, la direzione orientata verso l’esterno di molte recenti riforme istituzionali in questo campo mette in particolare dubbio la nozione di una coalizione trasversale di classe a favore della dualizzazione in Francia. Si sostiene invece che in un contesto in cui la riforma fondamentale del mercato del lavoro rimane una fonte di profondo conflitto, gli attori sociali e politici francesi si sono coalizzati su una strategia di secondo piano per sovvenzionare la precarietà degli emarginati, anche attraverso il sistema di assicurazione sociale. Questo aiuta a spiegare perché la segmentazione rimane così radicata in Francia, ma anche perché la Francia non ha visto i forti aumenti della povertà in età lavorativa che sono associati alla dualizzazione altrove.

France has often been understood along with Germany as a paradigmatic case of dualisation, with competitiveness oriented producer group politics driving the step-wise restriction of social and employment protections to core workers, and encour-aging the tacit acceptance of more precarious employment conditions and worse social protection for a growing "outsider" fringe of the workforce. This paper as-sesses this interpretation in the light of developments in French labour law and so-cial policy since the start of the 21st century. In this period segmentation has re-mained a serious problem on the French labour market. Though the growth in the share of atypical employment has slowed in the new millennium, temporary work has on a number of indicators become more unstable and precarious, and transi-tion rates between fixed-term and open-ended contracts have remained extremely low. This paper nonetheless argues that across the period neither institutional changes in social and employment policies nor their underlying socio-political dy-namics are consistent with the conventional dualisation account. It demonstrates that the rollback of employment protections has impacted core workers more than peripheral ones, and that the unemployment insurance system has become con-siderably more inclusive of workers with discontinuous employment biographies. Given that the regulatory autonomy of the social partners - trade unions and em-ployer associations - remained high in the unemployment insurance system until recently, the outsider-oriented direction of much recent institutional reform in this field casts particular doubt on the notion of a pro-dualisation cross-class coalition in France. I argue instead that in a context where fundamental reform of the la-bour market remains a source of deep conflict, French social and political actors have coalesced on a second-best strategy of subsidising outsider precariousness, including through the social insurance system. This helps to explain why segmenta-tion remains so entrenched in France, but also why France has not seen the sharp rises in working-age poverty that are associated with dualisation elsewhere.
Keywords: Francia, mercato del lavoro, dualizzazione, segmentazione, assicurazione contro la disoccupazione

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Daniel Clegg, Meno dualizzazione, più segmentazione: il modello francese nel ventunesimo secolo in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO " 159/2021, pp. 50-70, DOI:10.3280/SL2021-159003

   

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