Click here to download

To be hungry in the welfare cradle. A study of food security among asylum seekers in Norwegian reception centers
Journal Title: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Author/s:  Laura Terragni, Sigrun Henjum 
Year:  2021 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  16 Pg. 73-88 FullText PDF:  179 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2021-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Asylum seekers are among the groups most at risk of suffering of food insecurity. There are however few studies analyzing the extent of this phenomenon in Europe. The purpose of this study is to investigate food security among asylum seekers liv-ing in Norwegian reception centers. The study has been conducted though a survey among 205 asylum seekers living in eight centers and participant observation. The survey reveals that 93% of the residents in the centers experienced food insecurity and that there is little variation in their diets. Housing and living conditions make it difficult to maintain the role of meals as a form of commensality. Food, or better the lack of it, thus becomes a way to underline asylum seekers’ precariousness and social exclusion even in a country known for its universalistic welfare and wealth of its citizens.
Keywords: food security; asylum seekers; food in reception centers; Norway.

  1. Abbots E. (2016). Approaches to food and migration: Rootedness, being and belonging. In: Klein J. e Watson J., a cura di, The Handbook of Food and Anthropology, 115-132.
  2. Abbots E., Lavis A. e Attala M. (2015). Careful eating: bodies, food and care. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
  3. Arsenault J.E., Yakes E.A., Islam M.M., Hossain M.B., Ahmed T., Hotz C., Lewis B., Rahman A.S., Jamil K.M. e Brown K.H. (2013). Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity. J Nutr, 143: 197-203;
  4. Bailey A. (2017). The migrant suitcase: food, belonging and commensality among Indian migrants in the Netherlands. Appetite, 110: 51-60;
  5. Barbala I.M., Grewal N., Haug H., Eriksen A.M. e Terragni L. (2019). Mat for fremtiden. Norsk Tidskrift for ernæring, 4: 8-17.
  6. Biro G., Hulshof K.F., Ovesen L. e Cruz J.A. (2002). Selection of methodology to assess food intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 2, S25-S32;
  7. Borch A. e Kjærnes U. (2016). The Prevalence and Risk of Food Insecurity in the Nordic Region: Preliminary Results. Journal of Consumer Policy, 39: 261-274;
  8. Borgeraas E. (2016). Minimumsbudsjett for forbruksutgifter, Et forbruksbasert fattigdomsmål. Oslo: Forbruksforskningsinstituttet SIFO.
  9. Brekke J.P. e Staver A. (2018). The renationalisation of migration policies in times of crisis: the case of Norway. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44, 13, 2163-2181;, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2018.1433026
  10. Brochmann G. e Hagelund A. (2012). Immigration policy and the Scandinavian welfare state 1945-2010. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  11. Burchi F.E. e De Muro P. (2016). From food availability to nutritional capabilities: Advancing food security analysis. Food Policy, 60: 10-19;
  12. Burns C. (2004). Effect of migration on food habits of Somali women living as refugees in Australia, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 43: 213-229;, DOI: 10.1080/03670240490447541
  13. Coveney J. (2000). Food, morals, and meaning: The pleasure and anxiety of eating. London: Psychology Press.
  14. Dharod J., Croom J., Sady C.G. e Morrell D. (2011). Dietary intake, food security, and acculturation among Somali refugees in the United States: Results of a pilot study, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 9: 82-97;, DOI: 10.1080/15562948.2011.547827
  15. Dhesi S., Isakjee A. e Davies T. (2018). Public health in the Calais refugee camp: environment, health and exclusion. Critical Public Health, 28: 140-52;, DOI: 10.1080/09581596.2017.1335860
  16. Dolphijn R. (2004). Foodscapes: towards a Deleuzian ethics of consumption. Utrecht: Eburon Publishers.
  17. Enjolras B. e Strømsnes K. (2018). Scandinavian civil society and social transformations. Cham: Springer.
  18. Esping-Andersen G. (2015). Welfare regimes and social stratification. Journal of European Social Policy, 25: 124-34 ;, DOI: 10.1177/0958928714556976
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome Declaration on World Food Security; -- http://www.fao.org/3/w3613e/w3613e00.htm (ultimo accesso: 10 marzo 2021).
  20. Fontanari E. (2016). Soggettività en transit (Im)mobilità dei rifugiati in Europa tra sistemi di controllo e pratiche quotidiane di attraversamento dei confini. Mondi Migranti, 1: 39-60;, DOI: 10.3280/MM2016-001003
  21. Gallegos D., Ellies P. e Wright J. (2008). Still there’s no food! Food insecurity in a refugee population in Perth. Western Australia, Nutrition & Dietetics, 65: 78-83;
  22. Gasparetti F. (2012). Eating tie bou jenn in Turin: Negotiating differences and building community among Senegalese migrants in Italy. Food and Foodways, 20: 257-78;, DOI: 10.1080/07409710.2012.715976
  23. Gobo G. e Molle A. (2008). Doing ethnography. London: Sage.
  24. Grammatikopoulou M., Theodoridis X., Poulimeneas D., Maraki M., Gkiouras K., Tirodimos I., Dardavessis T. e Chourdakis M. (2019). Malnutrition surveillance among refugee children living in reception centres in Greece: a pilot study. International Health, 11: 30-35;
  25. Hadley C., Patil C., Nahayo D. (2010). Difficulty in the Food Environment and the Experience of Food Insecurity among Refugees Resettled in the United States. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 49: 390-407;
  26. Hadley C. e Sellen D. (2006). Food Security and Child Hunger among Recently Resettled Liberian Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Pilot Study. J Immigr Minor Health, 8: 369-75;
  27. Hagelund A. (2020). After the refugee crisis: public discourse and policy change in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Comparative Migration Studies, 8: 1-17;
  28. Hauge Å.L., Støa E. e Denizou K. (2017). Framing outsidedness – aspects of housing quality in decentralized reception centres for asylum seekers in Norway. Housing, Theory and Society, 34: 1-20;, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2016.1200668
  29. Helsedirektoratet, (2021). Utviklingen i norsk kosthold 2020, Rapporto n. IS-2969.
  30. Hendriks S.L. (2015). The food security continuum: a novel tool for understanding food insecurity as a range of experiences. Food Security, 7: 609-19;
  31. Henjum S., Torheim L.E., Thorne-Lyman A.L., Chandyo R., Fawzi W.W., Shrestha P.S. e Strand T.A. (2015). Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Public health nutrition, 18, 17: 3201-3210;, DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015000671
  32. Henjum S., Caswell B.L. e Terragni L. (2019). “I Feel like I’m Eating Rice 24 Hours a Day, 7 Days a Week”: Dietary Diversity among Asylum Seekers Living in Norway. Nutrients, 11, 10, 2293;
  33. Henjum S., Morseth M.S., Arnold C.D., Mauno D. e Terragni L. (2019). “I worry if I will have food tomorrow”: a study on food insecurity among asylum seekers living in Norway. BMC Public Health, 19, 1, 592;
  34. Holm L. (2013). Sociology of food consumption. In: Murcott, A., Belasco, W., e Jackson, P., a cura di, Handbook of Food Research. London: Bloomsbury Acad.
  35. Holm L., Nielsen A. e Lund T.B. (2020). Adapting to financial pressure on household food budgets in Denmark: Associations with life satisfaction and dietary health, Acta Sociologica, 63: 191-208;, DOI: 10.1177/0001699318810095
  36. Jonzon R., Lindkvist P. e Johansson E. (2015). A state of limbo – in transition between two contexts: Health assessments upon arrival in Sweden as perceived by former Eritrean asylum seekers, Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 43: 548-58;, DOI: 10.1177/1403494815576786
  37. Kennedy G., Ballard T. e Dop. M.C. (2011). Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity (ONU Food and Agriculture Organization).
  38. Janowska-Miasik E., Waśkiewicz A., Witkowska A.M., Drygas W., Markhus M.W., Zujko M.E., e Kjellevold M. (2021). Diet quality in the population of Norway and Poland: differences in the availability and consumption of food considering national nutrition guidelines and food market. BMC public health, 21, 1: 1-13;
  39. Loga J. (2018). Civil society and the welfare state in Norway – historical relations and future roles. Community Development Journal, 53: 574-91;
  40. McGowan L., Caraher M., Raats M., Lavelle F., Hollywood L., McDowell D., Spence M., McCloat A., Mooney E. e Dean M. (2017). Domestic cooking and food skills: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 57: 2412-2431;, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1072495
  41. McKay F., Lippi K., Dunn M., Haines B.C. e Lindberg R. (2018). Food-based social enterprises and asylum seekers: the food justice truck, Nutrients, 10: 756;
  42. Morseth M., Kaur Grewal N., Kaasa I.S., Hatloy A., Barikmo I. e Henjum S. (2017). Dietary diversity is related to socioeconomic status among adult Saharawi refugees living in Algeria, BMC public health, 17: 621;
  43. Nielsen A., Lund T.B. e Holm L. (2015). The taste of ‘the end of the month’, and how to avoid it: coping with restrained food budgets in a Scandinavian welfare state context, Social Policy and Society14: 429-442;, DOI: 10.1017/S1474746415000056
  44. Pavli A. e Maltezou H. (2017). Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe. Journal of travel medicine, 24, 4 ;
  45. Pfeiffer S., Ritter T. ed Elke Oestreicher (2015). Food insecurity in German households: qualitative and quantitative data on coping, poverty consumerism and alimentary participation. Social Policy and Society, 14: 483-495;, DOI: 10.1017/S147474641500010X
  46. Radimer K.L. (2002). ‘Measurement of household food security in the USA and other industrialised countries. Public Health Nutr, 5: 859-864;, DOI: 10.1079/PHN2002385
  47. Richards C., Kjærnes U.e Vik J. (2016). Food security in welfare capitalism: Comparing social entitlements to food in Australia and Norway. Journal of Rural Studies, 43: 61-70;
  48. Ryan J. (2011). ‘Migrants social networks and weak ties: accessing resources and constructing relationships post-migration’. The Sociological Review, 59: 707-24;
  49. Schmidt D. e Palutan G. (2018). Cibo e rifugiati nella città capitolina, tra pratiche di emergenza e tentativi di agentività. Archivio antropologico mediterraneo, [online], anno XXI, n. 20, 2;
  50. Seeberg M.L. (2017). Alt er relativt: ytelser til barnefamilier i norske asylmottak, 1989-2017. Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, 20: 268-85;
  51. Sellen D., Alison W., Tedstone E. e Frize J. (2002). Food insecurity among refugee families in East London: results of a pilot assessment. Public Health Nutr, 5: 637-644;, DOI: 10.1079/PHN2002340
  52. Skuland S.E. (2019). Packed Lunch Poverty: Immigrant Families’ Struggles to Include Themselves in Norwegian Food Culture. In: Borch, A., Harsløf, I., Klepp, I., Laitala K., a cura di, Inclusive Consumption. Oslo: Scandinavian Univ. Press.
  53. Søholt S. e Tronstad K.R. (2021). The Norwegian Case: Integration Through Local Autonomy and Institutionalization. In: Franzke J., Ruano de la Fuente, a cura di, Local Integration of Migrants Policy (pp. 35-52). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  54. Terragni L., Garnweidner L.M., Pettersen K.S. e Mosdøl A. (2014). Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from Asian, African and Middle Easter countries living in Norway. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 53, 3: 273-291;, DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2013.817402
  55. Terragni L., Henjum S., Haugh I., Hofset A.L., Dyrdal Nielsen P. e Stene T. (2018) “Meagre hospitality”. Experiences with food among asylum seekers living in Norwegian reception centres, Anthropology of food, S12 2018;
  56. Terragni L., Arnold C.D. e Henjum S. (2020). Food Skills and Their Relationship with Food Security and Dietary Diversity Among Asylum Seekers Living in Norway. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 52, 11: 1026-1034;
  57. Turner S. (2016). What is a refugee camp? Explorations of the limits and effects of the camp. Journal of Refugee Studies, 29: 139-48;
  58. Valenta M. e Berg B. (2012). Asylsøker i velferdsstatens venterom, Sosiologisk tidsskrift, 20: 387-89.

Laura Terragni, Sigrun Henjum, To be hungry in the welfare cradle. A study of food security among asylum seekers in Norwegian reception centers in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 2/2021, pp. 73-88, DOI:10.3280/MM2021-002004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content