The penis transplant is still an experimental and alternative surgery to phallo-plasty. This treatment has greater benefits, but also great risks for the recipient of the organ and its long-term effects are still unknown. Today, there have been five cases in the world and almost all of them have given encouraging physiological and psychosexual results. The loss of the penis can be experienced as a trauma and this leads people to isolate themselves and, in some culture, to be stigmatized with consequences on the psychological, sexual, social, and relational area of the person, both for the strong symbolic value of the penis, and for its anatomical function. It is important to inquire the fantasies and expectations of both the re-cipient so that the surgery is not associated with a miraculous effect, and the med-ical staff so that there is clear communication with the patient about risks, bene-fits, and possible alternatives. It is recommended a process of psychosexual valua-tion of the patient so that his intrapersonal and interpersonal resources can be val-uated since the therapeutic process is long and difficult due to its impact on the identity of the person and the work of integrating the new organ in the Self. So, it is important, where possible, to involve the family and the partner in the process. The figure of the psychosexologist is therefore fundamental both for the intimate na-ture of the treatment and for the aspects of life involved and his involvement is recommended throughout the therapeutic process to reduce the possibility of psychological rejection and the rising of psychosexual diseases.
Keywords: penis transplant, phalloplasty, biopsychosocial approach, gender iden-tity, sexual identity.