Click here to download

Time crafting in coworking spaces
Journal Title: STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI  
Author/s: Matteo Rinaldini, Anna Chiara Scapolan, Stefano Rodighiero, Fabrizio Montanari 
Year:  2021 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  26 Pg. 67-92 FullText PDF:  535 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SO2021-002003
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The paper aims at investigating the forms of time crafting activated by mobile workers in coworking spaces. In doing so the paper draws on and contribute to three different streams of research: literature on social acceleration, studies on job crafting and extant recent research on coworking spaces. Results reported in the paper are based on exploratory qualitative empirical research that involved 126 coworkers of 39 coworking spaces in the Italian Region Emilia-Romagna. Empirical evidence suggests two forms of time crafting that coworkers may adopt to structure and manage their time and the relationship between their work time and non-work time: time boundaries crafting and relational time crafting. The former basically refers to actions aimed at separating or overlapping work time and non-work time by frequenting the coworking space; the latter includes actions aimed at concentrating inside the coworking space all the time devoted to professional relationships as well as at ritualizing extra-work relationships. In both the time crafting forms, the coworking space plays a relevant role providing the workers with physical artifacts, services and intangible resources (basically a sense of community) which support coworkers in their actions aimed at crafting the timing, length and temporal intensity of their work and non-work activities.
Keywords: time crafting, job crafting, social acceleration, coworking spaces, mobile workers

  1. Albano R., Parisi T., Tirabeni L. (2019), “Gli smart workers tra solitudine e collaborazione”, Cambio. Rivista sulle Trasformazioni Sociali, 9(17): 61-73.
  2. Appel-Meulenbroek R., Weijs-Perrée M., Orel M., Gauger F., Pfnür A, (2020). “User preferences for coworking spaces; a comparison between the Netherlands, Germany and the Czech Republic”, Review of Managerial Science.
  3. Berdicchia D. (2013). La Proattività al Lavoro. Teorie e Prassi, Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli Editore.
  4. Berg J.M., Wrzesniewski A., Dutton J.E. (2010), “Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2‐3): 158-186.
  5. Biernacki P., Waldorf D. (1981), “Snowball sampling: Problems and techniques of chain referral sampling”, Sociological Methods & Research, 10(2): 141-163.
  6. Blagoev B., Costas J., Kärreman D. (2019), “‘We are all herd animals’: Community and organizationality in coworking spaces”. Organization, 26(6): 894-916.
  7. Brown, J. (2017), “Curating the “Third Place”? Coworking and the mediation of creativity”. Geoforum, 82: 112-126.
  8. Brown B., O’Hara K. (2003), “Place as a practical concern of mobile workers”, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 35(9): 1565-1587.
  9. Bruning P.F., Campion M.A. (2018), “A role–resource approach–avoidance model of job crafting: A multimethod integration and extension of job crafting theory”, Academy of Management Journal, 61(2): 499-522.
  10. Buonocore F., de Gennaro, D. Russo, M., Salvatore, D. (2017), An explorative study on antecedents of job crafting among self–employed and employed accountants. In P. Canonico, S. Consiglio, G. Mangia, M. Martinez, R. Mercurio, L. Moschera (eds.), Organizing in the Shadow of Power (pp. 477-504). Roma: Editrice Minerva Bancaria.
  11. Buonocore F., de Gennaro D., Russo M., Salvatore D. (2020), “Cognitive job crafting: A possible response to increasing job insecurity and declining professional prestige”, Human Resource Management Journal, 30(2): 244-259.
  12. Butera F. (2020), “Le condizioni organizzative e professionali dello smart working dopo l’emergenza: progettare il lavoro ubiquo fatto di ruoli aperti e di professioni a larga banda”, Studi Organizzativi, 1: 141-165.
  13. Caccamo M. (2020), “Leveraging innovation spaces to foster collaborative innovation”. Creativity and Innovation Management, 29(1): 178-191.
  14. Carvounas D., Ireland C. (2008), “Precariousness, the secured present and the sustainability of the future”, Time and Society, 17: 155-178.
  15. Castells M. (1996). The Information Age. Oxford: Blackwell.
  16. Cirillo V., Rinaldini M., Staccioli J., Virgillito M.E. (2021), “Technology vs. workers: the case of Italy’s Industry 4.0 factories”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 56: 166-183,
  17. Comacchio, A. (2021), The transformation of work in the COVID-19 era. puntOorg International Journal, 6(2), 87-98.
  18. Commissione Europea (2010), The Increasing Use of Portable Computer and Communication devices and its Impact on the Health of EU Workers. Lussemburgo: Ufficio delle Pubblicazioni dell’Unione Europea.
  19. Eisenhardt K.M. (1989), “Building theories from case study research”, Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 532-550.
  20. ERVET (2018), Economia Arancione in Emilia-Romagna – Cultura, Creatività, Industria. -- www.ervet.it/wpcontent/uploads/downloads/2018/06/1_Economia_Arancione-in-Emilia-Romagna_Parte-I-MappeVol-I.pdf.
  21. Eurofound e ILO (2017), Working Anytime, Anywhere: The Effects on the World of Work. Lussemburgo: Ufficio delle Pubblicazioni dell’Unione Europea e Ginevra: ILO.
  22. Fellini I. (2017), Il terziario di consumo. Occupazioni e professioni. Roma: Carocci.
  23. Fullin G. (2018), “I tempi del lavoro al servizio degli altri, tra flessibilità e destrutturazione degli orari”, Il Mulino, 67(4): 553-560.
  24. Garrett L.E., Spreitzer G.M., Bacevice P.A. (2017), “Co-constructing a sense of community at work: The emergence of community in coworking spaces”, Organization Studies, 38(6): 821-842.
  25. Gascoigne C., Kelliher C. (2018), “The transition to part-time: How professionals negotiate ‘reduced time and workload’ i-deals and craft their jobs”, Human Relations, 71(1): 103-125.
  26. Gerdenitsch C., Scheel T.E., Andorfer J., Korunka C. (2016), “Coworking spaces: A source of social support for independent professionals”, Frontiers in Psychology, 7.
  27. Gonsalves L. (2020), “From face time to flex time: The role of physical space in worker temporal flexibility”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 65(4): 1058-1091.
  28. Harvey D. (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
  29. Hassan R. (2010), “Social acceleration and the network effect: A defence of social ‘science fiction’ and network determinism”, The British Journal of Sociology, 61(2): 356-374.
  30. Hassard J.S. (2012), “Rethinking the Hawthorne Studies: The Western Electric research in its social, political and historical context”, Human Relations, 65(11): 1431-1461.
  31. Hu R. (2020), “COVID-19, smart work, and collaborative space: A crisis-opportunity perspective”. Journal of Urban Management, 9(3): 276-280.
  32. Italian Coworking (2021), I Numeri del Coworking in Italia 2020. -- https://www.italiancoworking.it/i-numeri-del-coworking-in-italia/.
  33. Lazazzara A., Tims M., de Gennaro D. (2020), “The process of reinventing a job: A meta–synthesis of qualitative job crafting research”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 116.
  34. Macnaghten P., Urry J. (1997), Contested Natures. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  35. Mariotti I., Pacchi C., Di Vita S. (2017), “Coworking spaces in Milan: Location patterns and urban effects”. Journal of Urban Technology, 24(3): 47-66.
  36. Mazmanian M., Orlikowski W.J., Yates, J. (2013), “The autonomy paradox: The implications of mobile email devices for knowledge professionals”, Organization Science, 24(5): 1337-1357.
  37. McKinsey Global Institute (2020), What’s Next for Remote Work: An Analysis of 2,000 Tasks, 800 Jobs, and Nine Countries. -- https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/whats-next-for-remote-work-an-analysis-of-2000-tasks-800-jobs-and-nine-countries.
  38. Meged J.W. (2017), “Guides crafting meaning in a flexible working life”, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(4): 374-387.
  39. Merkel J. (2019), ‘Freelance isn’t free.’ Co-working as a critical urban practice to cope with informality in creative labour markets”, Urban Studies, 56(3): 526-547.
  40. Montanari F. (ed.) (2020), Lo Sviluppo degli Spazi di Collaborazione e dei Coworking: Profilo, Organizzazione e Impatto su Innovazione e Trasformazioni del Lavoro. Report di Ricerca, OPERA Research Unit, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia.
  41. Montanari F., Mattarelli E., Scapolan A. (eds.) (2020), Collaborative Spaces at Work: Innovation, Creativity and Relations. Londra: Routledge.
  42. Montanari F., Scapolan A., Leone L. (2020), “Gli spazi collaborativi. Quale futuro dopo l’emergenza Covid-19”. Personale e Lavoro, 628: 20-26.
  43. Oldenburg R. (1989), The Great Good Place. New York: Paragon House.
  44. Orel M. (2020), "Supporting work–life balance with the use of coworking spaces." Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 39(5): 549-565.
  45. Orlikowski W.J., Yates J. (2002), “It’s about time: Temporal structuring in organizations”, Organization Science, 13(6): 684-700.
  46. Parisi T., Curzi Y., Albano R., Tirabeni L. (2018), “Perceived autonomy and discretion of mobile workers”, Studi Organizzativi, 2: 31-61.
  47. Petriglieri G., Ashford S.J., Wrzesniewski A. (2019), “Agony and ecstasy in the gig economy: Cultivating holding environments for precarious and personalized work identities”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 64(1): 124-170.
  48. Petrou P., Bakker A.B. (2016), “Crafting one’s leisure time in response to high job strain”, Human Relations, 69(2): 507-529.
  49. Pluta A., Rudawska, A. (2016), “Holistic approach to human resources and organizational acceleration”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 29(2): 293-309.
  50. Rodríguez-Modroño, P. (2021), “Non-standard work in unconventional workspaces: Self-employed women in home-based businesses and coworking spaces”. Urban Studies.
  51. Rosa H. (2013), Social Acceleration. A New Theory of Modernity. New York: Columbia University Press.
  52. Ross, P., Ressia, S. (2015), “Neither office nor home: Coworking as an emerging workplace choice”. Employment Relations Record, 15(1): 42-57.
  53. Salganik M.J., Heckathorn D.D. (2004), “Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent‐driven sampling”, Sociological Methodology, 34(1): 193-240.
  54. Scapolan A., Montanari F., Leone L., Razzoli D., Rinaldini M., Rodighiero S. (2020), “Gli spazi di lavoro negli hub creativi: una ricerca esplorativa”. Sviluppo & Organizzazione, 291: 26-37.
  55. Sennett R. (1998), The Corrosion of Character. The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: W. W. Northon.
  56. Sennett R. (2008), The Craftsman. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  57. Spinuzzi C. (2012), “Working alone together: Coworking as emergent collaborative activity”. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 26(4): 399-441.
  58. Strauss A., Corbin J. (1990), Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  59. Sturges J. (2012), “Crafting a balance between work and home”, Human Relations, 65(12), 1539-1559.
  60. Suddaby R. (2006), “From the editors: What grounded theory is not”. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4): 633-642.
  61. Tims M., Bakker A.B. (2010), “Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign”, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(2): 1-9.
  62. Virilio P. (1977). Vitesse et Politique: Essai de Dromologie. Paris: Edition Galilée
  63. Wajcman J. (2014). Pressed for Time. The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  64. Wessels C., Schippers M.C., Stegmann S., Bakker A.B., van Baalen P.J., Proper K.I. (2019), “Fostering flexibility in the new world of work: a model of time-spatial job crafting”, Frontiers in Psychology, 10.
  65. Wrzesniewski A., Dutton J.E. (2001), “Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work”, Academy of Management Review, 26(2): 179-201.
  66. Yin R.K. (2009), Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  67. Zerubavel E. (1985), Hidden Rhythms: Schedules and Calendars in Social Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Matteo Rinaldini, Anna Chiara Scapolan, Stefano Rodighiero, Fabrizio Montanari, Time crafting in coworking spaces in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 2/2021, pp. 67-92, DOI:10.3280/SO2021-002003

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content